Dr Daniel Caro

Daniel Caro is a Research Fellow at OUCEA.

He completed a Ph.D. in Education from the Freie Universität Berlin, a Master’s degree in Interdisciplinary Studies from the University of New Brunswick, and a BA in Economics from Universidad del Pacifico. He has been a Fellow of the International Max Planck Research School on the Life Course (LIFE) and the OECD’s Thomas J. Alexander Fellowship Programme.

Daniel convenes the MSc Education (Research Design and Methodology) Programme in the Department of Education.

At OUCEA, Daniel is working on the following research projects: Achievement growth and differential school effectiveness in Peru, Assessment for Learning in Africa (AFLA), the impact of linear and modular examinations at GCSE, indicators of education system effectiveness, PIRLS 2016 National Centre, and the R ‘intsvy’ package. He has previously been involved in research projects related to the study of rater effects, predictability of examinations, and ethnicity gaps in educational attainment.

Research interests and areas for student supervision

Daniel’s primary research interests reside in the areas of education inequality, educational effectiveness, international assessments, mixed models in cross-sectional and longitudinal settings, and causal inference with observational data. Daniel is developing a package in R (‘intsvy’) for the analysis of PISA, PIAAC, PIRLS and TIMSS datasets.

Journal articles

  • Caro, DH, Kyriakides, L, Televantou, I (2018) “Addressing omitted prior achievement bias in international assessments: an applied example using PIRLS-NPD matched data”, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice. 25(1) 5-27.
    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2017.1353950

  • Baird, JA, Meadows, M, Leckie, G, Caro, D (2017) “Rater accuracy and training group effects in Expert- and Supervisor-based monitoring systems”, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice. 24(1) 44-59.
    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2015.1108283

  • Caro, DH, Lenkeit, J, Kyriakides, L (2016) “Teaching strategies and differential effectiveness across learning contexts: Evidence from PISA 2012”, STUDIES IN EDUCATIONAL EVALUATION. 49 30-41.
    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stueduc.2016.03.005

  • Baird, J-A, Caro, DH, Hopfenbeck, TN (2016) “Student perceptions of predictability of examination requirements and relationship with outcomes in high-stakes tests in Ireland”, IRISH EDUCATIONAL STUDIES. 35(4) 361-379.
    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03323315.2016.1227719

  • Caro, DH, Cortina, KS, Eccles, JS (2015) “Socioeconomic background, education, and labor force outcomes: evidence from a regional US sample”, British Journal of Sociology of Education. 36(6) 934-957.
    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01425692.2013.868784

  • Lenkeit, J, Caro, DH, Strand, S (2015) “Tackling the remaining attainment gap between students with and without immigrant background: an investigation into the equivalence of SES constructs”, Educational Research and Evaluation. 21(1) 60-83.
    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13803611.2015.1009915

  • Caro, DH (2015) “Causal Mediation in Educational Research: An Illustration Using International Assessment Data”, JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON EDUCATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS. 8(4) 577-597.
    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19345747.2015.1086913

  • Mirazchiyski, P, Caro, DH, Sandoval-Hernandez, A (2014) “Youth Future Civic Participation in Europe: Differences Between the East and the Rest”, SOCIAL INDICATORS RESEARCH. 115(3) 1031-1055.
    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11205-013-0258-2

  • Lenkeit, J, Caro, DH (2014) “Performance status and change - measuring education system effectiveness with data from PISA 2000-2009”, Educational Research and Evaluation. 20(2) 146-174.
    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13803611.2014.891462

  • Caro, DH, Sandoval-Hernandez, A, Luedtke, O (2014) “Cultural, social, and economic capital constructs in international assessments: an evaluation using exploratory structural equation modeling”, SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS AND SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT. 25(3) 433-450.
    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09243453.2013.812568

  • Caro, DH, Lenkeit, J (2012) “An analytical approach to study educational inequalities: 10 hypothesis tests in PIRLS 2006”, International Journal of Research and Method in Education. 35(1) 3-30.
    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1743727X.2012.666718

  • Caro, DH, Schulz, W (2012) “Ten hypotheses about tolerance toward minorities among Latin American adolescents”, Citizenship, Social and Economics Education. 11(3) 213-234.
    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2304/csee.2012.11.3.213

  • Caro, DH, Mirazchiyski, P (2012) “Socioeconomic gradients in eastern european countries: Evidence from PIRLS 2006”, European Educational Research Journal. 11(1) 96-110.
    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2304/eerj.2012.11.1.96

  • Caro, DH, Lenkeit, J, Lehmann, R, Schwippert, K (2009) “The role of academic achievement growth in school track recommendations”, Studies in Educational Evaluation. 35(4) 183-192.
    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stueduc.2009.12.002

  • Caro, DH, McDonald, JT, Douglas Willms, J (2009) “Socio-economic status and academic achievement trajectories from childhood to adolescence”, Canadian Journal of Education. 32(3) 558-590.

  • Caro, DH, Lehmann, R (2009) “Achievement inequalities in Hamburg schools: How do they change as students get older?”, School Effectiveness and School Improvement. 20(4) 407-431.
    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09243450902920599

  • Caro, DH, Cortés, D “Measuring family socioeconomic status: An illustration using data from PIRLS”, IERI Monograph Series: Issues and Methodologies in Large-Scale Assessments. 5 9-33.

  • Caro, DH “Parent-child communication and academic performance: Associations at the within- and between-country level”, Journal for Educational Research Online. 2. 3 15-37.

Internet publication

  • Caro, DH, Lenkeit, J (2015) Which countries punch above their weight in education rankings?. The Conversation.


  • Baird, J, Hopfenbeck, TN, Elwood, J, Caro, D, Ahmed, A (2015) Predictability in the Irish Leaving Certificate. Oxford and Belfast: Oxford University and Queen's University, Belfast.

  • Caro, DH, Baird, J-A (2013) Assessing the value of multilevel models for the study of marker reliability. Oxford: Oxford University Centre for Educational Assessment.

  • Caro, DH (2012) “Evidencia causal en estudios educativos con bases de datos observables. [Causal evidence in educational studies with observational data]”, In: Inversión social: indicadores, bases de datos e iniciativas. [Social investment: indicators, data sets and initiatives]. Lima: Universidad del Pacífico.

  • Caro, DH (2007) “Variabili individuali e del contesto scolastico: un’analisi causale con modelli multilivello [Student and school variability: a causal analysis using multilevel models]”, In: Il livello di competenza dei quindicenni italiani in matematica, lettura, scienze e problem solving PISA 2003. Risultati del Trentino [Proficiency levels in mathematics, reading, science, and problem solving of Italian 15-year-olds in PISA 2003. Results for the Trento region]. Trento: IPRASE del Trentino.

  • Caro, DH, Zuccarelli, D (2007) “L’influenza del contesto socio-economico e i risultati dell’indagine PISA 2003 in Trentino [The influence of the socio-economic context in PISA 2003 results in Trento]”, In: Il livello di competenza dei quindicenni italiani in matematica, lettura, scienze e problem solving PISA 2003. Risultati del Trentino [Proficiency levels in mathematics, reading, science, and problem solving of Italian 15-year-olds in PISA 2003]. Trento: IPRASE del Trentino.

  • Caro, DH, Espinoza, G, Montane, A, Tam, M (2003) Una aproximación a la alfabetización lectora de los estudiantes peruanos de 15 años. Resultados del Perú en la evaluación internacional PISA. [Reading literacy skills of Peruvian 15-year-olds: Results of Peru in PISA]. Lima: Ministry of Education.

  • Caro, DH (2003) “¿Cómo mejorar el desempeño académico de los estudiantes de secundaria que asisten a escuelas en las zonas pobres del Perú? [How to improve academic performance of high school students in poor districts in Peru?]”, In: Buscando el bienestar de los pobres: ¿Cuan lejos estamos? [Achieving well-being for the poor: how far are we?]. Lima: Universidad del Pacífico.


  • Department staff


  • OUCEA Research Fellow

Research groups


01865 611023

Publications, books and other work