Professor Edward Melhuish


My research interests are in understanding social and communicative development from birth to adulthood including environmental influences through the use of longitudinal studies. Other interests include:

  • Early childhood education and care (ECEC)
  • Parenting
  • Child poverty and disadvantage
  • the linking of child development and social policy

My work has been concerned with using theoretically driven research to address applied issues and policy questions to produce improvements in development and well-being. This has included topics such as:

  • the development of pre-term babies
  • the children of psychiatrically disturbed parents
  • social, linguistic and cognitive development
  • emergent literacy
  • Early childhood education and care (ECEC) and the evaluation of policy initiatives


Such work regularly involves collaboration with social, biological and medical scientists in studying child development and the influence of experience. Most of my research projects have been multi-disciplinary. I have previously collaborated in research projects in 12 countries on behalf of the European Commission, and I am currently involved in collaborative work with researchers in several European countries, USA and Australia.

Current research

Current work involves evaluating interventions such as early childhood education and care (ECEC), parental support, early intervention strategies etc., and derives from theoretical work on the importance of particular environmental input affecting children’s development, and the results are influencing policy. This work involves using randomised control trials (RCTs), quasi-experimental methods, and qualitative research.

I have been involved in longitudinal studies of family and pre-school factors affecting child development in England (EPPE) and Northern Ireland (EPPNI). I am currently involved in similar longitudinal research in several countries. Also I am the director of the Study of Early Education and Development that involves a longitudinal study of over 5000 children.

National Evaluation of Sure Start

I have been director of the National Evaluation of Sure Start (NESS). Sure Start is an early intervention programme targeting disadvantaged young children and their families. The evaluation examines under what conditions Sure Start programmes are affecting children, families and communities.

This work involved an investigation of over 20,000 children and families and a longitudinal follow-up of 8,000 children in poor communities.

Other projects

In addition I have worked with local, national and international governmental organisations to use developmental research to inform public policy to improve the lives of families and young children.   I am a member of a Child Well-being working group of WHO, and the Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Working Group Early Childhood Interventions Group. I have undertaken research for the Medical Research Council, Economics and Social Research Council, Save the Children Fund, DCSF, DoH and several other government and voluntary sector agencies

Policy Impact

My research in the 1980s influenced the 1989 Children Act, and later research has influenced the 2005 Children Act, 2006 Childcare Bill and policy on childcare, early education, child poverty and parental support in the UK and other countries.  For example my projects have contributed to the formulation of social policy, such as the universal provision of a pre-school place for all 3 & 4 year-olds, the establishment of 3500 Children’s Centres, the government’s Every Child Matters and 10-Year Childcare strategies. From 2013 the UK government rolled out free part-time early education to all of the 40% most disadvantaged children in the country from age 2 upwards, and this decision was heavily influenced by my projects in collaboration with other researchers.

Consultant and Advisor

I have acted as a consultant for design for children, children’s organizations (e.g. UNESCO), government departments, e.g., DfE, DWP, DoH, Treasury, Prime Minister’s Office, and film, television and radio companies. I am on the scientific advisory board of the Early Intervention Fund. I have served as an expert witness to several House of Commons Select Committees and as a consultant to the Stanford Research Institute, USA. I have been a scientific advisor to several research funding organisations including the Nordic Research Council, the Academy of Finland, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation),  Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) (Portuguese Research Council), Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), and the Australian Research Council. With over 250 publications, I have contributed to discussions of social policy for children in Norway, Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, Finland, Portugal, South Korea, Australia, Canada and Chile, as well as the European Commission, Organisation for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD) and the World Health Organisation (WHO).


Over many years I have acted as an advisor and consultant on a pro-bono basis to many charities and voluntary organisations involved with child well-being, including NSPCC, Save the Children, Action for Children, 4Children, BIG Lottery Fund, Early Years Ireland, Atlantic Philanthropies, National Children’s Bureau, Children in Wales, Early Intervention Fund, and eurochild.  I am a trustee of the WAVE trust.

Publications – 2008 onwards

In Press

  • Cline, J.I., Belsky, J., Li, Z., Melhuish, E., Lysenko,L., McFarquhar, T., Stevens, S., & Jaffee, S.R. (in press). Take Your Mind Off It: Coping Style, 5-HTTLPR Genotype, and Children’s Internalizing and Externalizing Problems.Development & Psychopathology
  • Jaffee, S.R., McFarquhar, T., Stevens, S., Ouellet-Morin, I., Melhuish, E., and Belsky, J. (in press). Interactive effects of early and recent exposure to stressful contexts on cortisol reactivity in middle childhood. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry.
  • Anning, A., Ball, M., Belsky, J. and Melhuish, E. (in press). Exploring Links Between the Processes and Impact of Sure Start Local Programmes: Multi-Agency Team Work as an Exemplar. Children and Society.
  • NESS Research Team (in press). Evaluating a National Intervention Programmed for Disadvantaged Young Children: The Sure Start Local Programmes in England. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 1 [Reprinted in M. Junger, R. Tremblay, W. Koops, B. Prinsen and H. Jonkman (Eds.), Early interventions to prevent conduct disorders: Opportunities and problems. London: Psychology Press.]
  • Belsky, J. Melhuish, E., and Barnes. (in press). Sure Start Local Programmes: Area-Based, Early-Preventative Intervention in England. In R. Alexander, N. Guterman and S. Alexander (Eds.), Prevention of Child Maltreatment. St. Louis, Missouri: GW Medical Publishing.
  • Siraj-Blatchford, I., Sylva, K., Sammons, P., Melhuish, E. and Taggart, B. (in press), ‘Mixed methods in early childhood research’. British Educational Research Journal.


  • Gardiner, J., Sutcliffe, A.G., Melhuish, E., & Barnes, J. (2015).  Paternal age, paternal presence and children’s health: an observational study.  Pediatric Reports 7 :5659.
  • Siraj, I., Kingston, D., & Melhuish, E. (2015).  Assessing Quality in early Childhood Education and Care: Sustained shared thinking and emotional well-being (SSTEW) for 2-5 year-olds provision.  London: Trentham Books.  ISBN-13: 978-185566580.
  • Melhuish, E. (2015).  Early childhood environments: long-term consequences of early childhood education and parenting. In S. Hay (Ed.) Early Years Education and Care.  Oxford: Routledge.






  • Basatemur E, Melhuish E, Belsky J, Barnes J, Sutcliffe A. (2010). Relationships between children’s cognitive performance and maternal and childhood obesity status. Longitudinal and Life Course Studies. 1(3-Supplement):129.
  • Melhuish, E. C. (2010) A linked study: effective pre-school provision in Northern Ireland. In: Sylva, K. and Melhuish, E. C. and Sammons, P. and Siraj-Blatchford, I. and Taggart, B. (eds.) Early Childhood Matters: Evidence from the Effective Pre-school and Primary Education Project. Abingdon, UK: Routledge, pp. 192-205. ISBN 9780415482431.
  • Melhuish, E. (2010). Impact of the Home Learning Environment on Child Cognitive Development: Secondary Analysis of Data from ‘Growing Up in Scotland’.  Edinburgh: the Scottish Government.
  • Melhuish, E., Quinn, L., Sylva, K., Sammons, P., Siraj-Blatchford, I., and Taggart, B. (2010). Pre-school Experience and Key Stage 2 performance in English and Mathematics.  Belfast: Dept for Education, Northern Ireland.
  • Sylva, K., Melhuish, E., Sammons, P., Siraj-Blatchford, I. and Taggart, B., (Eds) (2010). Early Childhood Matters: Evidence from the Effective Pre-school and Primary Education Project. London: Routledge.
  • Melhuish, E., Belsky, J., Leyland, A., and Barnes, J. (2010). Welche Auswirkungen hatte die Einfunhrung lokaler Sure Start Programme auf dreijahrige Kinder und ihre Familien in England? Eine quasi-experimentelle Beobachtungstudie. In K. Sylva, and B. Taggart (Eds). Fruhe Bildung zahlt: Das Effective Pre-school and Primary Education Projekt (EPPE) und das Sure Start Programm. DohrmanVelag. Berlin. ISBN 978-3-938620-18-2
  • Melhuish, E. (2010). Why children, parents and home learning are important. In K. Sylva, E. Melhuish, P. Sammons, I. Siraj-Blatchford, B. Taggart, (Eds) (2010). Early Childhood Matters: Evidence from the Effective Pre-school and Primary Education Project. London: Routledge.
  • Friedman, S.L., Melhuish, E. and Hill, C. (2010). Childcare Research at the Dawn of a New Millennium: An update. In G. Bremner and T. Wachs (Eds.) Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Infant Development, second edition. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Melhuish,E, Belsky, J., and Barnes, J. (2010). Child health and well-being in the early years: the National Evaluation of Sure Start. In A. Killoran and M. Kelly (Eds.) Evidenced-based Public Health. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Melhuish, E. (2010). Fruhpadagogische Forschung und ihre Wirkung auf die Politik in Grossbritannien. In F. Becker-Stoll, J Berkic and B. Kalicki (Eds.) Bildungsqualitat fur Kinder in den ersten drei jahren. Berlin: Cornelsen.
  • Melhuish, E. (2010). England: Sure Start. In J. Oates (Ed.) Early Childhood in Focus: Supporting Parenting. Milton Keynes: Open University.
  • Melhuish, E. and Belsky J. (2010). Evaluating Sure Start in England. In J. Oates (Ed.) Early Childhood in Focus: Supporting Parenting. Milton Keynes: Open University.
  • Sylva, K. Chan, L. Melhuish, E., Sammons, P., Siraj-Blatchford, I., and Taggart, B. (2010). Emergent Literacy Environments: Home and Preschool Influences on Children’s Literacy Development. In S.B. Neumann and D.K. Dickinson (Eds.) Handbook of Early Literacy Research, Volume 3. New York: Guilford Press.
  • Melhuish E., Belsky J., and Barnes J. (2010). Sure start and its evaluation in England. In R. Tremblay, R. Barr, R. Peters, and M. Boivin (Eds). Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development [online]. Montreal, Quebec: Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development; 2010:1-6. Available at:
  • Melhuish, E, Belsky, J., and Barnes, J. (2010). Evaluation and value of Sure Start . Archives of Disease in Childhood, 95, 159-161.
  • Hall, J. E., Sammons, P., Sylva, K., Melhuish, E., Taggart, B., Siraj-Blatchford, I. and Smees, R. (2010). Measuring the combined risk to young children’s cognitive development: An alternative to cumulative indices. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 28, 219-238.
  • NESS (2010). The impact of Sure Start Local Programmes on five year olds and their families: Research report DFE-RR067.  London: DfE. ISBN 978-1-84775-826-2.
  • NESS (2010). The impact of Sure Start Local Programmes on five year olds and their families: Research brief DFE-RB067 . London: DfE.
  • Melhuish, E., Belsky, J., MacPherson, K., and Cullis, A. (2010). The quality of group childcare settings used by 3-4 year old children in Sure Start local programme areas and the relationship with child outcomes : Research report DFE-RR068. London:DfE. ISBN 978-1-84775-828-6.
  • Melhuish, E., Belsky, J., MacPherson, K., and Cullis, A. (2010). The quality of group childcare settings used by 3-4 year old children in Sure Start local programme areas and the relationship with child outcomes: Research brief DFE-RB068 . London: DfE.


  • Belsky, J. and Melhuish, E. (2009). Early Intervention for Young Children and their Families in England: The Sure Start Journey Over the Last Decade. In U. Von der Leyen and V. Spidla (eds) Voneinander lernen – miteinander handeln: Aufgaben und Perspektiven der Europdischen Allianz f|r Familien (Shared experience, concerted action: Ideas and perspectives in the European Alliance for Families). Baden-Baden Germany, Nomos-Verlag.
  • Hall, J., Sylva, K., Melhuish, E., Sammons, P., Siraj-Blatchford, I. and Taggart, B. (2009), ‘The role of pre-school quality in promoting resilience in the cognitive development of young children’ . Oxford Review of Education, 35, 331–352.
  • Belsky, J., A. Leyland, J. Barnes and Edward Melhuish Sure Start in England, The Lancet, 373, Issue 9661, February 2009. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60132-X.


Edward Melhuish webprofile


  • Department staff


  • Academic Research Leader

Research groups

  • Families, Effective Learning and Literacy (FELL)
  • Rees Centre for Research in Fostering and Education