Stuart is a Departmental Lecturer in Educational Assessment at the Department of Education.
Stuart has a PhD in Education from the University of Warwick. His research interests cover many aspects of educational assessment, including examination standards, the assessment of practical skills, the use of assistive technology for assessment, and the digitisation of assessment.
Prior to January 2022, Stuart was Associate Director for Research at Ofqual, where he helped lead a research programme to support the regulation of examinations and qualifications in England. He has held senior research roles both at Ofqual and at an examination board.
He, Q. & Cadwallader, S.M. (2022). An investigation of inter-subject comparability in GCSEs and A levels in summer 2021. Ofqual. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/an-investigation-of-inter-subject-comparability-in-gcses-and-a-levels-in-summer-2021
Holmes, S., Brylka, A., Case, N., Clarke, L., Howard, E., Keys, E., Tonin D. Cadwallader S.M. (2022). Teacher Assessed Grades in summer 2021: Interviews. Ofqual. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/teacher-assessed-grades-in-summer-2022-interviews-and-surveys
Cadwallader, S. M. & Tonin, D. (2021). The use of assistive technologies for assessment. Ofqual. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/the-use-of-assistive-technologies-for-assessment/the-use-of-assistive-technologies-for-assessment
Lockyer, C. & Cadwallader, S.M. (2020). Internal assessment in existing national technical and vocational qualifications. Ofqual. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/863758/Internal_assessment_in_existing_national_technical_and_vocational_qualifications.pdf
Cadwallader, S. M. (2019). The impact of qualification reform on A level science practical work. Paper 5: Final report on the pre- and post-reform evaluation of science practical skills. Ofqual. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/the-impact-of-qualification-reform-on-alevel-science-practical-work
Cadwallader, S. M. (2018). The impact of qualification reform on A level science practical work. Paper 4: An analysis of the functioning of items that indirectly assess A level science practical skills. Ofqual. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/the-impact-of-qualification-reform-on-alevel-science-practical-work
Cadwallader, S. M., Cuff, B. M. P & Khan, A. (2018). The impact of qualification reform on A level science practical work. Paper 3: Valid discrimination in the assessment of practical performance. Ofqual. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/the-impact-of-qualification-reform-on-alevel-science-practical-work
Cadwallader, S. (2018). The impact of qualification reform on A level science practical work. Paper 2: Pre- and post-reform evaluation of science practical skills. Ofqual. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/the-impact-of-qualification-reform-on-alevel-science-practical-work
Cadwallader, S. M. & Clinckemaillie, L. (2017). The impact of qualification reform on A level science practical work. Paper 1: Teacher perspectives after one year. Ofqual. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/the-impact-of-qualification-reform-on-alevel-science-practical-work
Cadwallader, S. M. (2014). Developing grade descriptions for the new GCSEs: considerations and challenges. Manchester: AQA Centre for Education Research and Practice. https://www.aqa.org.uk/about-us/our-research/research-library/paper?path=developing-grade-descriptions-new-gcses-considerations-and-challenges
Cadwallader, S. M. & Tremain, K. (2013). How policy formation and implementation interacts with risks to high stakes qualifications. Manchester: AQA Centre for Education Research and Practice. https://www.aqa.org.uk/about-us/our-research/research-library/paper?path=how-policy-formation-and-implementation-interacts-risks-high-stakes-qualifications
The assessment of behaviours in apprenticeship end point assessments. Tonin, D., Clarke, L. & Cadwallader, S.M. Association for Educational Assessment (AEA Europe) conference, Dublin (2022).
The use of remote invigilation – awarding organisation views on its introduction and impact. Cadwallader, S. M & Tonin, D. Association for Educational Assessment (AEA Europe) conference, online (2021).
Evaluating the impact of A level qualification reform on science practical skills. Cadwallader, S. M. Association for Educational Assessment (AEA Europe) conference, Lisbon (2019).
Valid discrimination in the assessment of practical skills. Cadwallader, S. M. Association for Educational Assessment (AEA Europe) conference, Prague (2017).
What is the meaning of a grade? Developing grade descriptors that are fit for purpose. Cadwallader, discussion group chaired at: Association for Educational Assessment (AEA Europe) conference, Tallinn (2014).
What should be keeping us up at night? Perspectives on the key threats to the general qualification system. Meadows, M.L. & Cadwallader, S.M. Cambridge Assessment Conference – Examining Risk, Cambridge (2012).
The Implicit Theories of Intelligence of Gifted and Talented Adolescents and how they Relate to Academic Goals and Achievement. Cadwallader, S. M. British Educational Research Association conference, Edinburgh (2008).
Jenny has extensive experience of successful teaching of secondary science in schools and a strong track record of teaching and leading Initial Teacher Education (ITE), including being Programme Leader of the Secondary PGCE at Bishop Grosseteste University in Lincoln for 10 years and contributing to the wider sector as Chair of the Universities Council for the Education of Teachers (UCET) in England PGCE Secondary Forum and member of the UCET executive.
Now contributing to the PGCE, MLT and DPhil courses in the Department of Education at the University of Oxford, Jenny’s current research interests include using the Threshold Concepts Framework (TCF) to explore effective science teaching as well as effective ITE.
Dunn, M. & Wynn, J. (2022) Threshold Connections: Engaging trainee teachers in collaborative curriculum research to explore threshold concepts within secondary school science disciplines. In Threshold Concepts in the Moment. Currently with the Editors.
Puttick, S. & Wynn, J. (2021) Constructing ‘good teaching’ through written lesson observation feedback. Oxford Review of Education, 47(2): 152-169.
Puttick, S., Nye, Z., Wynn, J., Muir, L. & Hill, Y. (2021) Student teachers’ beliefs about diversity: Analysing the impact of a ‘diversity week’ during Initial Teacher Education. Teacher Development, 25(1): 85-100.
Lulu is a departmental lecturer at the Department and a research associate at the Oxford Internet Institute and Sociology Department Oxford. She is a sociologist and her research spans technology, education, work and employment and organisations.
Lulu leads a project funded by the British Academy, which investigates how educational technology (EdTech) transforms education. Specifically, the project studies the role of EdTech firms – who can be seen as the architects behind the technology – in shaping education by considering the socio-political contexts they are embedded in.
She also works on the project DomesticAI at the Oxford Internet Institute. In this project she focuses on the transformation of paid and unpaid work in the age of AI and robotics. With her team she designed a cross-national harmonised factorial survey experiment.
During her doctoral studies, she researched on the labour market, skills formation systems and organisation studies with a country comparative focus.
Lulu teaches the MSc programme Digital and Social Change and supervises MSc students, focusing on technology and society.
Peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters:
- Lehdonvirta, V., Shi, L.P. (corresponding author), Hertog, E., Nagase, N., Ohta, Y. (forthcoming): “The Future(s) of Unpaid Work: How susceptible do experts from different backgrounds think the domestic sphere to automation”, In: PLOS One, https://osf.io/preprints/socarxiv/vzwyd/
- Shi, L.P., Di Stasio, V. (2022): “Finding a job after unemployment – Education as a moderator of unemployment scarring in Norway and Switzerland”, In: Socio-Economic Review, p. 1–25. https://doi.org/10.1093/ser/mwaa056
- Shi, L.P., Wang, S. (2021): “Demand-side consequences of unemployment and horizontal skills mismatch across national contexts: An employer-based factorial survey experiment”, In: Social Science Research, p. 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2021.102668
- Imdorf, C., Shi, L.P., Sacchi, S., Samuel, R. (2019): “Scars of early job insecurity across Europe: insights from a multi-country employer study”. In: B. Hvinden, C. Hyggen, M. A. Schoyen and T. Sirovatka, Youth Unemployment and Job Insecurity in Europe. Problems, Risk Factors and Policies, 1st ed. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, p. 93–116.
- Parsanoglou, D., Yfanti, A., Hyggen, C., Shi, L.P. (2019): “The impact of active labour market policies on young unemployed: A comparison between Greece and Norway.” In: B. Hvinden, J. O’Reilly, M. A. Schoyen and C. Hyggen, Negotiating early job insecurity. Well-being, scarring and resilience of European youth, 1st ed. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, p. 90–114.
- Shi, L.P., Imdorf, C., Samuel R., Sacchi, S. (2018): “How unemployment scarring affects skilled young workers: evidence from a factorial survey of Swiss recruiters”. In: Journal of Labour Market Research, 52, p.1–15.
Project working papers / policy briefs:
- Shi, L.P., Hertog, E., Nash, V. (2022): Written evidence on technology and data privacy. House of Commons, Digital, Culture, Media and Sport Committee. https://committees.parliament.uk/writtenevidence/109471/pdf/
- Shi, L.P., Imdorf, C., Sacchi, S., Samuel, R. (2017): “Employers assessments of young job applicants: Findings from a comparative study”. European Policy Brief, no. 6, p.1–5.
- Imdorf, C., Shi, L.P., Sacchi, S., Samuel, R., Hyggen, C., Stoilova, R., Yordanova, G., Boyadieva, P., Ilieva-Trichkova, P., Parsanoglou, D., Yfanti, A. (2017): “Explaining employers’ hiring decisions: A comparative study of employers’ risk assessment”. NEGOTIATE Working paper No. 7.3, p.1–35.
- Imdorf, I., Shi, L.P., Helbling, L., Sacchi, S., Samuel, R. (2016): “Institutional Determinants of early job insecurity in nine European Countries”. NEGOTIATE Working paper No. 3.4, p.1–43.
- Kilchmann, V., Kobler, C., Shi, L.P., Imdorf, C. (2016): “Strategies to improve labour market integration of young people: Comparing policy coordination in nine European countries”. NEGOTIATE Working paper No. 8.2, p.1–27.
- Hyggen, C., Imdorf, C., Parsanaglou, D., Sacchi, S., Samuel, R., Stoilova, R., Shi, L.P., Yfanti, A., Yordanova, G. (2016): “Understanding unemployment scars: A vignette experiment of employers’ decisions in Bulgaria, Greece, Norway and Switzerland”. NEGOTIATE Working paper No. 7.2, p.1–66.
- Abebe, D.S., Bussi, M., Buttler, D., Hyggen, C., Imdorf, C., Michoń, P., O’Reilly, J., Shi, L.P. (2016): “Explaining consequences of employment insecurity: The dynamics of scarring in the United Kingdom, Poland and Norway”. NEGOTIATE Working paper No. 6.2, p.1–50.
- Shi, L.P., Imdorf, C., Samuel, R. (2015): “Studying employers’ risk assessment and the role of institutions: An experimental design”. NEGOTIATE Working paper No. 7.1, p.1–25.
Mark has worked in ELT and EMI for over 35 years as a teacher, teacher trainer, lecturer, course writer, syllabus designer, examiner, Director of Studies, and consultant editor for OUP. For the British Council he has worked as a consultant trainer and course developer in EMI and EAP. For the University of Oxford Department of Education Mark delivered the ELT option on the MSc ALSLA and is Teaching Associate of the EMI Research Group in which capacity he has worked as a CI and has developed and delivered EMI teacher training courses in China, Serbia and Oxford. Mark has worked in universities in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Czechia, Italy, Germany, Mexico, Peru, Chile, Brazil, Colombia and Morocco.
He continues to be involved in EMI and is currently co-authoring an EMI student guide.
Mark is an alumnus of the University of Oxford Department of Education and was among the first to be awarded the innovative MSc in Teaching English Language in University Settings.
Jim obtained a BA in Modern History and a MA in European History from University College London, followed by a MA in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages from Birkbeck College London. After this, he completed a PGCE in Secondary History and a MEd in Researching Practice at the University of Cambridge. He was awarded a PhD in Education from UCL. His doctoral research focused on the relationship between academic and school history, particularly in relation to literacy in secondary history curriculum design.
Jim taught and mentored in a number of state secondary schools and sixth form colleges. He was also a part of the Ofsted History Subject Working Group which provided advice on the new inspection framework’s development and implementation. He is an Honorary Fellow of the Historical Association and acted as Associate Editor for the HA’s professional journal Teaching History.
Jim’s research interests focus on history curriculum design, particularly literacy in history education, the relationships between academic and school history, and the interplay between overview and depth in history curricula.
• Carroll, J. E. (2022). ‘Terms and conditions: using metaphor to highlight causal processes with Year 13‘. Teaching History, 187, pp.40-49.
• Carroll, J. E. (2021). ‘Retheorising national assessment of the narrative mode for historical causal explanation in England’. History Education Research Journal, 18 (2), pp.148–65.
• Carroll, J. E. (2020). ‘Whose genres? Establishing curricular goals for students’ historical writing in England’ Teaching History (HTANSW), 52 (2), pp. 17-20
• Carroll, J.E. (2019). ‘Epistemic explanations for divergent evolution in discourses regarding students’ extended historical writing in England’. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 51 (1), pp.100-120
• Carroll, J. E. (2018). ‘Couching counterfactuals in knowledge when explaining the Salem witch trials with Year 13’. Teaching History, 172, pp.18-29
• Carroll, J. E. (2017). ‘From divergent evolution to witting cross-fertilisation: the need for more inter-discursive communication regarding students’ extended historical writing’. Curriculum Journal, 28 (4), pp.504-523
• Carroll, J. E. (2017). ‘From ‘double vision’ to panorama: using history of memory to bridge ‘event space’ when exploring interpretations of Nazi popularity with Year 13′. Teaching History, 168, pp.24-36
• Carroll, J. E. (2017). ‘I feel if I say this in my essay it’s not going to be as strong’: multi-voicedness, ‘oral rehearsal’ and Year 13 students’ written arguments’. Teaching History, 167, pp.8-16
• Carroll, J. E. (2016). ‘Grammar. Nazis. Does the grammatical ‘release the conceptual’? Teaching History, 163, pp.8-16
• Carroll, J. E. (2016). ‘Exploring historical ‘frameworks’ as a curriculum goal: a case study examining students’ notions of historical significance when using millennia-wide time scales’. Curriculum Journal, 27 (4), pp.454-478
• Carroll, J. E. (2016). ‘The whole point of the thing: how nominalisation might develop students’ written causal arguments’ Teaching History, 162, pp.16-24
Debbie Aitken (she/her) is Course Director for the MSc Medical Education and a Departmental Lecturer in Medical Education.
She is also Co-Chair of the Equity, Diversity and Belonging (EDB) Committee in the Department of Education, Lead for Equality, Diversity and Inclusion (EDI) in the Medical School, a Fellow of Harris Manchester College, and a Principal Fellow of the Higher Education Academy (PFHEA).
Prior to taking up her post at the University of Oxford, Debbie was the Director of the Clinical Educator Programme (CEP) at Edinburgh Medical School. She also had numerous roles within the undergraduate medical programme (MBChB) at Edinburgh, particularly in relation to EDI, student wellbeing, and undergraduate and postgraduate Medical Education research projects. She has also worked as a Medical Educationalist at the Royal College of Physicians of London, and as a classroom teacher in a number of schools. Debbie has won a number of awards for her work in EDI and teaching: most recently the NHS Education Scotland Medical Education Award for Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion. Other awards of note are the NHS Education for Scotland Medical Education Award for Process and Development Implementation (for the CEP), and an ASME Travelling Fellowship which led to collaboration and teaching with Yale Teaching and Learning Center and Yale Medical School Department of General Internal Medicine, Harvard Medical School, and Weill Cornell Medicine. Debbie has also worked extensively within the wider international Medical Education community, including the University of Health Sciences, Phnom Penh, Cambodia; Hong Kong Academy of Medicine; and as part of the IDEAL+ Erasmus project at Université de Paris.
Debbie completed a BA in History and English at the University of Stirling, an MA in Language, Literature & Civilisation at Université Michel de Montaigne Bordeaux III, a Postgraduate Certificate of Education (PGCE) with Qualified Teacher Status in Primary Education at the University of Durham, an MSc in Digital Learning at the University of Edinburgh, and a Postgraduate Certificate in Academic Practice (PGCAP) at the University of Edinburgh. She completed her PhD in Medical Education at the University of Cambridge on ‘Generational differences in perceptions of medical student experiences of clinical attachments in surgery’.
Emma Rawlings Smith is Departmental Lecturer in Geography Education. She teaches on the PGCE Geography and MSc in Learning and Teaching programmes, and supervises postgraduate students in the fields of geography education and teacher education.
After completing a first degree in Geography and Biology at the University of Sussex, a Masters in Environmental Archaeology and Palaeoeconomy (with Distinction) and a Secondary Geography PGCE both at the University of Sheffield, Emma taught school geography for 15 years in the United Kingdom and abroad. Emma’s disciplinary expertise was recognised by the Royal Geographical Society (with IBG) when she became a Fellow (FRGS) and Chartered Geographer in 2009. While working in Abu Dhabi, she gained an MA in Education (with Distinction), and became increasingly interested in practitioner research and professional learning. On return to England Emma completed her doctorate exploring the professional capital of authors who recontextualise knowledge about place in geography textbooks.
Emma has worked in Higher Education since 2016. Firstly, at the University of Leicester as PGCE Geography Lead, SCITT Academic Lead and MSc Educational Leadership module lead. She then moved into the role of Postgraduate Research Lead at Bangor University and further supported research as the School Ethics Chair and CaBan ITE Partnership Research Lead. Emma was awarded Welsh Government funding for a Student Transitions to University project in collaboration with colleagues at Cardiff Metropolitan University. She has published widely on geography education and initial teacher education (ITE) and her research interests focus on teacher education, professional development, teacher and teacher educator identity, student transitions, lesson study in ITE, and place pedagogy. Emma is currently working on an edited volume titled Encountering Place in Education to be published by Routledge in 2023.
Emma has been, and continues to be, involved in a range of societies and associations. She is a trustee and sits on the Council of the Royal Geographical Society (RGS- IBG) as Honorary Secretary (Education) and is a Chartered Geographer assessor. Emma is a member of the Geography Education Research Collective, a member of the Geographical Association’s (GA) Teacher Education Phase Committee and Teaching Geography Editorial Board, having previously sat on the Post 16 & Higher Education Committee (2009-2016). Through her consultancy work with the GA, RGS, the Field Studies Council, NASBTT and Durham Education Service, Emma has supported the professional learning of geography teachers on Data Skills, Changing Places, qualitative methods and geographical enquiry and she has co-authored a number of 11-18 school geography textbooks. Emma has examined GCSE and A level geography for AQA and Edexcel and most recently worked as a GCE Geography Examination Author for OCR. Emma has since served as an External Examiner on PGCE programmes at the University of Reading and Liverpool Hope University.
Current professional associations: British Educational Research Association (BERA);
Royal Geographical Association (with IBG); Geographical Association (GA); International Professional Development Association (IPDA); British Educational Leadership, Management and Administration Society (BELMAS).
Funded Research Projects
Student transitions to university in Wales during COVID-19 Welsh Government funded as part of the National Strategy for Educational Research and Enquiry Collaborative Evidence Network Programme (10/2021-07/2022).
Teacher Drop Out Erasmus+ Programme (2000-2023).
NERC Discipline Hopping (DH) for Environmental Solutions, (12/2021 – 04/2022).
Dr. Gosia Marschall is a Departmental Lecturer and a researcher in Mathematics and Teacher Education at the Department of Education, University of Oxford.
After having taught secondary and post-16 mathematics for over a decade, Gosia completed her MEd in International Perspectives in Mathematics Education at the Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge. Following that, during years 2016-2021, Gosia worked at the University of Cambridge as a Teaching Associate in Mathematics Education. This involved working with pre-service secondary mathematics teachers (on the faculty’s PGCE programme) and with in-service mathematics teachers participating in Teaching Advanced Mathematics professional development programme (co-run by the Faculty of Education and Mathematics Education and Innovation—MEI charity organisation). During this time, she also completed her PhD study at the University of Stockholm, which concluded in a thesis entitled “Reconceptualising teacher self-efficacy in relation to teacher identity: A longitudinal phenomenological study of pre-service secondary mathematics teachers during initial teacher education”. In 2022, Gosia joined the Department of Education team at the University of Oxford where, while continuing with her research, she teaches on the PGCE and Masters programmes.
Gosia’s main research agenda revolves around the concepts of affect, beliefs, values and identity in Mathematics (Teacher) Education. Her work is predominantly abductive and phenomenological, engaging with qualitative case studies and theory. The main branch of her research focuses on developing understanding of how (mathematics) teachers learn during initial teacher education and throughout their career. By drawing on theoretical and empirical research perspectives from education, sociology, social psychology and cognitive neuroscience, Gosia pursues the goal of (re)conceptualizing teacher professional learning as a process which integrates teacher knowledge, teacher self-efficacy, affect and agency, and teacher identity; all that while keeping teachers and their professional growth, fulfilment and wellbeing at heart. This work relates further to her research in secondary mathematics teacher actions and decision making in the classroom.
Gosia’s secondary research interest relates to the teaching and learning early algebra. In particular, in her MEd dissertation project she explored Polish teachers’ conceptions and approaches to teaching linear equations.
Laura is Co-Director of the University of Oxford Education Deanery and subject lead for the PGCE in Modern Languages. She also supervises higher degrees in the fields of instructed second language learning and language teacher education.
Before working with the department, Laura taught French and German at secondary school level. She became interested in teacher education whilst mentoring beginning languages teachers during their school placements. Her doctoral research focussed on in-service languages teachers’ professional learning experiences and needs.
Laura is currently working on a project to compare the nature of instructed second/foreign language learning at secondary school in England, Norway and France.