Higher education and the pandemic in East and Southeast Asia: Are there models here for the rest of the world?
17th September 2020 : 14:00 - 15:00
Speaker: Norzaini Azman, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia; Wenqin Shen, Peking University; Aki Yonezawa, Tohoku University
Location: Online (Zoom) - Click 'Register now'
Convener: Simon Marginson
There are striking differences between countries and cultures in the manner in which the pandemic experience has been managed. These differences are associated with variations in the outcomes of the pandemic, and have also had practical consequences for higher education, where again, regulation has differed from country to country.
Compare the tragic passage of Covid-19 in the United States, United Kingdom and parts of Europe with the relatively low death tolls in East and Southeast Asia, where regulation and self-regulation have prevailed. By late July there had been 148,011 Covid-19 related deaths in the US, 44,759 in the UK and 35,112 in Italy. In East Asia the experience has been very different. By late July, only 7 people in Taiwan had died, 27 in Singapore, 124 in Malaysia, 300 in South Korea and 996 in Japan. China’s 4656 deaths were largely concentrated in Hubei province and compare favourably with other very large countries including Brazil (87,618), India (33,425) and the US. In Vietnam, a country of 97.3 million people, larger than any country in Europe, there had been just 300 Covid-19 cases and no deaths.
For the most part, the East and Southeast Asian approach to higher education has been centrally regulated, with whole system shut down, regulation and reopening, and clear demarcation of periods of offline only provision from phases of mixed and online provision. In Europe and the US there has often been local and regional variation, with some institutional leaders expected to carry responsibility for public health decisions. In the market model countries of US and UK, where the state refuses to guarantee the financing of higher education institutions, there is individual push back against social controls, and government often favours early reopening of the economy, institutions find themselves forced to offer face-to-face provision before the pandemic has been eliminated, in order to sustain their enrolment base. This can lead to complex mixed and hybrid provision where participation is expensive to provide yet not fully satisfactory for students, and there are continuing health and financial risks.
Does the East and Southeast Asian experience of the pandemic in higher education, which has played out in distinctive cultural and political contexts in which individual and family understanding of the common good is well developed, have lessons for other parts of the world including Europe, North American and the emerging country systems in South Asia, Latin America and Africa? What is the appropriate government policy for higher education under conditions of a global pandemic? Are there stellar examples of individual institutions’ handling of the pandemic? What are students and faculty saying in East and Southeast Asian countries? How do these systems handle relations between individual freedoms and social protection, the economy and public health, higher education responsibility and financial sustainability, and mobility/presence and online connectivity in learning?
About the speakers
Norzaini Azman is Professor of Higher Education at the Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. She is also an Associate Research Fellow at the National Higher Education Research Institute (IPPTN) and a governance board member of the University College of Yayasan Pahang (UCYP). She is currently serving as the 2017-2021 Chair/President of the Malaysian Society for Research and Higher Education Policy Development (PenDaPaT). Her main research interests include higher education policy and governance, the academic profession, higher education and sustainability and leadership in higher education.
Shen Wenqin is Associate Professor of Higher Education at the Graduate School of Education, Peking University. He is a Visiting Scholar in the Department of Educational Policy Studies at UW-Madison in 2013 and 2014. His research concerns research training system and doctoral education, history of higher education and internationalization of higher education. He has published many papers in these fields as well as two books, The Origin, Development, and Modern Transformation of the Western Idea of Liberal Education: A Conceptual History (2011), and The quality of Ph. Ds: concepts, evaluation and trends (2011, coauthored with Prof. Chen Hongjie).
Dr Akiyoshi Yonezawa is Professor and Vice-Director, International Strategy Office, Tohoku University. With a background in sociology, he mainly conducts research on comparative higher education policy – especially focusing on world-class universities, internationalization and public-private relationships in higher education. He established his expertise in higher education policy and management though working experience at Nagoya University, OECD, and the University of Tokyo, etc. He is a board member at Japan Association for Higher Education Research and Japan Comparative Education Society. His recent co-edited book Researching Higher Education in Asia (Springer, 2018) was granted the “Best Book Award 2019” from Comparative and International Education Society (SIG Higher Education).