Department of Education

Charles Hulme

Professor of Psychology and Education

College Affiliation: Brasenose College

Charles Hulme is Professor of Psychology and Education in the Department of Education and William Golding Senior Research Fellow at Brasenose College.

He has broad research interests in reading, language and memory processes and their development and is an expert on randomized controlled trials in Education. His work on reading development has made important contributions to understanding the role of phonological skills in learning to read. He has also explored the role of wider language skills (particularly vocabulary knowledge and grammatical skills) as influences on the development of reading comprehension.

His publications include a number of assessment materials including the Phonological Abilities Test (1997), the York Assessment of Reading for Comprehension (YARC, 2009) and Sound Linkage (2014) as well as several books dealing with various aspects of reading development. He is the former Editor-in –Chief of the journal ‘Scientific Studies of Reading’ (2007-2009) and is currently a Senior Editor of the Association of Psychological Science’s flagship journal, Psychological Science.

In 2009 he published “Developmental disorders of language, learning and cognition” (Wiley-Blackwell; co-authored with Maggie Snowling). He holds an honorary doctorate from the University of Oslo (2014) and is a member of Academia Europea and a Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences. He received the Feitelson Research Award from the International Reading Association (1998) and the Marion Welchman International Award for Contributions to the study of Dyslexia from the British Dyslexia Association (2016).  He is a Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences, a Fellow of Academia Europaea and a Fellow of the British Academy

Charles Hulme would welcome informal contacts from prospective doctoral students interested in the following topics:

Developmental dyslexia
Reading comprehension impairment
The development of arithmetic skills
Reading and language intervention

Research interests:
Developmental cognitive disorders; development of reading, language and arithmetic skills in children; randomized controlled trials in education.

Google Scholar Citations

Funded Research Projects:

  • Newbury, D. Snowling, M. & Hulme, C.

    2015-2018

    A language and reading intervention programme for Chile, piloted in the Robinson Crusoe population. ESRC. £348,731. ES/N01913X/1

  • Hulme, C., Nash, H., & Halliday, L.

    2015-2018

    The role of automatic letter-speech sound integration in reading development and dyslexia. ESRC. £352,000

  • Hulme, C., & Snowling, The Nuffield Early Language Intervention Programme – Primary

    2017-2019

    A randomized controlled trial. Education Endowment Foundation. £450K

  • Herman, R., Kyle, F., Roy, P.

    2018-2019

    Evaluating a language and reading programme for deaf and hearing children. £100,000 . Nuffield Foundation.

  • Hulme, C., & Snowling, The Nuffield Nursery Language Programme

    2019-2021

    Development and Evaluation. £571,825.87 Grant ref EDO/43387. Nuffield Foundation

Doctoral Applications

Charles welcomes doctoral applications from students interested in the following research areas:

  • Developmental dyslexia
  • Reading comprehension impairment
  • The development of arithmetic skills
  • Reading and language intervention

Publications:

  • Books

  • Book chapters

    • Hulme, C, Melby-Lervåg, M (2015) “Educational interventions for children's learning difficulties”, In: Rutter's Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Sixth Edition. 533-544
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1002/9781118381953.ch41

    • Duff, FJ, Hulme, C, Snowling, MJ (2015) “Learning Disorders and Dyslexia”, In: Encyclopedia of Mental Health: Second Edition. 5-11
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-397045-9.00062-8

    • Brown, GDA, Preece, T, Hulme, C (2014) “Learning to learn in a connectionist network: The development of associative learning”, In: Connectionist Models of Memory and Language. 41-56
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.4324/9781315794495

  • Conference papers

    • Brown, GDA, Hyland, P, Hulme, C (1994) “Effects of varying memory vector size in a network that learns to learn”, IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks - Conference Proceedings. 4 2291-2296.

  • Journal articles

    • Malone, SA, Heron-Delaney, M, Burgoyne, K, Hulme, C (2019) “Learning correspondences between magnitudes, symbols and words: Evidence for a triple code model of arithmetic development.”, Cognition. 187 1-9.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.11.016

    • Snowling, MJ, Lervåg, A, Nash, HM, Hulme, C (2019) “Longitudinal relationships between speech perception, phonological skills and reading in children at high-risk of dyslexia.”, Developmental science. 22(1) e12723+.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12723

    • Pritchard, VE, Malone, SA, Burgoyne, K, Heron-Delaney, M, Bishop, DVM, Hulme, C (2019) “Stage 1 Registered Report: The relationship between handedness and language ability in children.”, Wellcome open research. 4 30+.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.12688/wellcomeopenres.15077.1

    • West, G, Vadillo, MA, Shanks, DR, Hulme, C (2019) “The procedural deficit hypothesis of language learning disorders: We still see some serious problems.”, Developmental science. e12813+.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12813

    • Snowling, MJ, Nash, HM, Gooch, DC, Hayiou-Thomas, ME, Hulme, C, Wellcome Language and Reading Project Team (2019) “Developmental Outcomes for Children at High Risk of Dyslexia and Children With Developmental Language Disorder.”, Child development.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13216

    • Hulme, C, Zhou, L, Tong, X, Lervåg, A, Burgoyne, K (2019) “Learning to read in Chinese: Evidence for reciprocal relationships between word reading and oral language skills.”, Developmental science. 22(1) e12745+.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12745

    • Malone, SA, Pritchard, VE, Heron-Delaney, M, Burgoyne, K, Lervåg, A, Hulme, C (2019) “The relationship between numerosity discrimination and arithmetic skill reflects the approximate number system and cannot be explained by inhibitory control.”, Journal of experimental child psychology. 184 220-231.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2019.02.009

    • Tobia, V, Brigstocke, S, Hulme, C, Snowling, MJ (2018) “Developmental changes in the cognitive and educational profiles of children and adolescents with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.”, Journal of applied research in intellectual disabilities : JARID. 31(1) e177-e181.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/jar.12344

    • Lervåg, A, Hulme, C, Melby-Lervåg, M (2018) “Unpicking the Developmental Relationship Between Oral Language Skills and Reading Comprehension: It's Simple, But Complex.”, Child development. 89(5) 1821-1838.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12861

    • Clayton, FJ, Hulme, C (2018) “Automatic Activation of Sounds by Letters Occurs Early in Development but is not Impaired in Children With Dyslexia”, SCIENTIFIC STUDIES OF READING. 22(2) 137-151.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/10888438.2017.1390754

    • Clayton, FJ, Sears, C, Davis, A, Hulme, C (2018) “Verbal task demands are key in explaining the relationship between paired-associate learning and reading ability.”, Journal of experimental child psychology. 171 46-54.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2018.01.004

    • Hulme, C (2018) “Verbal task demands are key in explaining the relationship between paired-associate learning and reading ability.”, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology.

    • Snowling, MJ, Gooch, D, McArthur, G, Hulme, C (2018) “Language Skills, but Not Frequency Discrimination, Predict Reading Skills in Children at Risk of Dyslexia.”, Psychological science. 29(8) 1270-1282.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1177/0956797618763090

    • Worster, E, Pimperton, H, Ralph-Lewis, A, Monroy, L, Hulme, C, MacSweeney, M (2018) “Eye Movements During Visual Speech Perception in Deaf and Hearing Children.”, Language learning. 68(Suppl Suppl 1) 159-179.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12264

    • Burgoyne, K, Gardner, R, Whiteley, H, Snowling, MJ, Hulme, C (2018) “Evaluation of a parent-delivered early language enrichment programme: evidence from a randomised controlled trial.”, Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines. 59(5) 545-555.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12819

    • Dyson, H, Solity, J, Best, W, Hulme, C (2018) “Effectiveness of a small-group vocabulary intervention programme: evidence from a regression discontinuity design.”, International journal of language & communication disorders. 53(5) 947-958.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/1460-6984.12404

    • Scerri, TS, Macpherson, E, Martinelli, A, Wa, WC, Monaco, AP, Stein, J, Zheng, M, Suk-Han Ho, C, McBride, C, Snowling, M, Hulme, C, Hayiou-Thomas, ME, Waye, MMY, Talcott, JB, Paracchini, S (2017) “The DCDC2 deletion is not a risk factor for dyslexia.”, Translational psychiatry. 7(7) e1182+.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1038/tp.2017.151

    • Burgoyne, K, Witteveen, K, Tolan, A, Malone, S, Hulme, C (2017) “Pattern Understanding: Relationships With Arithmetic and Reading Development”, CHILD DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVES. 11(4) 239-244.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/cdep.12240

    • Fricke, S, Burgoyne, K, Bowyer-Crane, C, Kyriacou, M, Zosimidou, A, Maxwell, L, Lervåg, A, Snowling, MJ, Hulme, C (2017) “The efficacy of early language intervention in mainstream school settings: a randomized controlled trial.”, Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines. 58(10) 1141-1151.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12737

    • Clarkson, L, Roodenrys, S, Miller, LM, Hulme, C (2017) “The phonological neighbourhood effect on short-term memory for order.”, Memory (Hove, England). 25(3) 391-402.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/09658211.2016.1179330

    • Clarke, PJ, Paul, S-AS, Smith, G, Snowling, MJ, Hulme, C (2017) “Reading Intervention for Poor Readers at the Transition to Secondary School”, SCIENTIFIC STUDIES OF READING. 21(5) 408-427.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/10888438.2017.1318393

    • Puglisi, ML, Hulme, C, Hamilton, LG, Snowling, MJ (2017) “The Home Literacy Environment Is a Correlate, but Perhaps Not a Cause, of Variations in Children's Language and Literacy Development.”, Scientific studies of reading : the official journal of the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading. 21(6) 498-514.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/10888438.2017.1346660

    • Bowyer-Crane, C, Fricke, S, Schaefer, B, Lervåg, A, Hulme, C (2017) “Early literacy and comprehension skills in children learning English as an additional language and monolingual children with language weaknesses.”, Reading and writing. 30(4) 771-790.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-016-9699-8

    • Dyson, H, Best, W, Solity, J, Hulme, C (2017) “Training Mispronunciation Correction and Word Meanings Improves Children's Ability to Learn to Read Words”, SCIENTIFIC STUDIES OF READING. 21(5) 392-407.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/10888438.2017.1315424

    • Lyster, S-AH, Lervag, AO, Hulme, C (2016) “Preschool morphological training produces long-term improvements in reading comprehension (vol 29, pg 1269, 2016)”, READING AND WRITING. 29(6) 1289-1289.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-016-9647-7

    • Kail, RV, Lervåg, A, Hulme, C (2016) “Longitudinal evidence linking processing speed to the development of reasoning.”, Developmental science. 19(6) 1067-1074.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12352

    • Melby-Lervåg, M, Hulme, C (2016) “There is no convincing evidence that working memory training is effective: A reply to Au et al. (2014) and Karbach and Verhaeghen (2014).”, Psychonomic bulletin & review. 23(1) 324-330.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-015-0862-z

    • Melby-Lervåg, M, Redick, TS, Hulme, C (2016) “Working Memory Training Does Not Improve Performance on Measures of Intelligence or Other Measures of "Far Transfer": Evidence From a Meta-Analytic Review.”, Perspectives on psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science. 11(4) 512-534.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1177/1745691616635612

    • Lyster, S-AH, Lervåg, AO, Hulme, C (2016) “Preschool morphological training produces long-term improvements in reading comprehension.”, Reading and writing. 29 1269-1288.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-016-9636-x

    • Klem, M, Hagtvet, B, Hulme, C, Gustafsson, J-E (2016) “Screening for Language Delay: Growth Trajectories of Language Ability in Low- and High-Performing Children.”, Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR. 59(5) 1035-1045.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1044/2016_jslhr-l-15-0289

    • Long, I, Malone, SA, Tolan, A, Burgoyne, K, Heron-Delaney, M, Witteveen, K, Hulme, C (2016) “The cognitive foundations of early arithmetic skills: It is counting and number judgment, but not finger gnosis, that count.”, Journal of experimental child psychology. 152 327-334.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2016.08.005

    • Næss, K-AB, Lervåg, A, Lyster, S-AH, Hulme, C (2015) “Longitudinal relationships between language and verbal short-term memory skills in children with Down syndrome.”, Journal of experimental child psychology. 135 43-55.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2015.02.004

    • Klem, M, Melby-Lervåg, M, Hagtvet, B, Lyster, S-AH, Gustafsson, J-E, Hulme, C (2015) “Sentence repetition is a measure of children's language skills rather than working memory limitations.”, Developmental science. 18(1) 146-154.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12202

    • Redick, TS, Shipstead, Z, Wiemers, EA, Melby-Lervåg, M, Hulme, C (2015) “What's working in working memory training? An educational perspective.”, Educational psychology review. 27(4) 617-633.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-015-9314-6

    • Mengoni, SE, Nash, HM, Hulme, C (2014) “Learning to read new words in individuals with Down syndrome: testing the role of phonological knowledge.”, Research in developmental disabilities. 35(5) 1098-1109.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2014.01.030

    • Myers, CA, Vandermosten, M, Farris, EA, Hancock, R, Gimenez, P, Black, JM, Casto, B, Drahos, M, Tumber, M, Hendren, RL, Hulme, C, Hoeft, F (2014) “White matter morphometric changes uniquely predict children's reading acquisition.”, Psychological science. 25(10) 1870-1883.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1177/0956797614544511

    • Nergård-Nilssen, T, Hulme, C (2014) “Developmental dyslexia in adults: behavioural manifestations and cognitive correlates.”, Dyslexia (Chichester, England). 20(3) 191-207.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1002/dys.1477

    • Göbel, SM, Watson, SE, Lervåg, A, Hulme, C (2014) “Children's arithmetic development: it is number knowledge, not the approximate number sense, that counts.”, Psychological science. 25(3) 789-798.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1177/0956797613516471

    • Mengoni, SE, Nash, H, Hulme, C (2013) “The benefit of orthographic support for oral vocabulary learning in children with Down syndrome.”, Journal of child language. 40(1) 221-243.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1017/s0305000912000396

    • Caravolas, M, Lervåg, A, Defior, S, Seidlová Málková, G, Hulme, C (2013) “Different patterns, but equivalent predictors, of growth in reading in consistent and inconsistent orthographies.”, Psychological science. 24(8) 1398-1407.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1177/0956797612473122

    • Melby-Lervåg, M, Hulme, C (2013) “Is working memory training effective? A meta-analytic review.”, Developmental psychology. 49(2) 270-291.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1037/a0028228

    • Hulme, C, Melby-Lervag, M (2012) “Current evidence does not support the claims made for CogMed working memory training”, JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH IN MEMORY AND COGNITION. 1(3) 197-200.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jarmac.2012.06.006

    • Melby-Lervåg, M, Lervåg, A, Lyster, S-AH, Klem, M, Hagtvet, B, Hulme, C (2012) “Nonword-repetition ability does not appear to be a causal influence on children's vocabulary development.”, Psychological science. 23(10) 1092-1098.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1177/0956797612443833

    • Caravolas, M, Lervåg, A, Mousikou, P, Efrim, C, Litavsky, M, Onochie-Quintanilla, E, Salas, N, Schöffelová, M, Defior, S, Mikulajová, M, Seidlová-Málková, G, Hulme, C (2012) “Common patterns of prediction of literacy development in different alphabetic orthographies.”, Psychological science. 23(6) 678-686.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1177/0956797611434536

    • Naess, K-AB, Melby-Lervag, M, Hulme, C, Lyster, S-AH (2012) “Reading skills in children with Down syndrome: A meta-analytic review (vol 33, pg 737, 2011)”, RESEARCH IN DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES. 33(4) 1039-1040.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2012.01.012

    • Næss, K-AB, Melby-Lervåg, M, Hulme, C, Lyster, S-AH (2012) “Reading skills in children with Down syndrome: a meta-analytic review.”, Research in developmental disabilities. 33(2) 737-747.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2011.09.019

    • Dretzke, J, Round, J, Connock, M, Tubeuf, S, Pennant, M, Fry-Smith, A, Hulme, C, McCabe, C, Meads, C (2010) “Imatinib as adjuvant treatment following resection of KIT-positive gastrointestinal stromal tumours.”, Health technology assessment (Winchester, England). 14(Suppl. 2) 63-70.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.3310/hta14suppl2/09

    • Roodenrys, S, Hulme, C, Lethbridge, A, Hinton, M, Nimmo, LM (2002) “Word-frequency and phonological-neighborhood effects on verbal short-term memory.”, Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition. 28(6) 1019-1034.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1037//0278-7393.28.6.1019

    • Laing, E, Hulme, C (1999) “Phonological and semantic processes influence beginning readers' ability to learn to read words.”, Journal of experimental child psychology. 73(3) 183-207.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1006/jecp.1999.2500

    • Brown, GDA, Vousden, JI, McCormack, T, Hulme, C (1999) “The development of memory for serial order: A temporal-contextual distinctiveness model”, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY. 34(5-6) 389-402.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/002075999399747

    • Walker, I, Hulme, C (1999) “Concrete Words Are Easier to Recall Than Abstract Words: Evidence for a Semantic Contribution to Short-Term Serial Recall”, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition. 25(5) 1256-1271.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.25.5.1256

    • Hulme, C, Newton, P, Cowan, N, Stuart, G, Brown, G (1999) “Think before you speak: pauses, memory search, and trace redintegration processes in verbal memory span.”, Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition. 25(2) 447-463.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1037//0278-7393.25.2.447

    • Hatcher, PJ, Hulme, C (1999) “Phonemes, rhymes, and intelligence as predictors of children's responsiveness to remedial reading instruction: evidence from a longitudinal intervention study.”, Journal of experimental child psychology. 72(2) 130-153.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1006/jecp.1998.2480

    • Walker, I, Hulme, C (1999) “Concrete words are easier to recall than abstract words: Evidence for a semantic contribution to short-term serial recall”, JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION. 25(5) 1256-1271.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1037//0278-7393.25.5.1256

    • Muter, V, Hulme, C, Snowling, M, Taylor, S (1998) “Segmentation, not rhyming, predicts early progress in learning to read.”, Journal of experimental child psychology. 71(1) 3-27.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1006/jecp.1998.2453

    • Hulme, C, Muter, V, Snowling, M (1998) “Segmentation does predict early progress in learning to read better than rhyme: A reply to Bryant”, JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY. 71(1) 39-44.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1006/jecp.1998.2456

    • Hulme, C, Roodenrys, S, Schweickert, R, Brown, GD, Martin, M, Stuart, G (1997) “Word-frequency effects on short-term memory tasks: evidence for a redintegration process in immediate serial recall.”, Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition. 23(5) 1217-1232.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1037//0278-7393.23.5.1217

    • Muter, V, Hulme, C, Snowling, M, Taylor, S (1997) “Segmentation, not rhyming, predicts early progress in learning to read.”, Journal of experimental child psychology. 65(3) 370-396.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1006/jecp.1996.2365

    • Lowe, G, Britton, R, Carpenter, E, Castle, H, Clayton, C, Hulme, C, Mara, D, Ormerod, J (1997) “Social drinking and laughter.”, Psychological reports. 81(2) 684+.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1997.81.2.684

    • Sims, K, Henderson, SE, Hulme, C, Morton, J (1996) “The remediation of clumsiness. I: An evaluation of Laszlo's kinaesthetic approach.”, Developmental medicine and child neurology. 38(11) 976-987.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.1996.tb15058.x

    • Snowling, MJ, Bryant, PE, Hulme, C (1996) “Theoretical and methodological pitfalls in making comparisons between developmental and acquired dyslexia: Some comments on A. Castles & M. Coltheart (1993)”, READING AND WRITING. 8(5) 443-451.

    • Stothard, SE, Snowling, MJ, Hulme, C (1996) “Deficits in phonology but not dyslexic?”, COGNITIVE NEUROPSYCHOLOGY. 13(5) 641-672.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/026432996381872

    • Sims, K, Henderson, SE, Morton, J, Hulme, C (1996) “The remediation of clumsiness. II. Is kinaesthesis the answer?”, Developmental medicine and child neurology. 38(11) 988-997.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.1996.tb15059.x

    • Brown, GD, Hulme, C, Dalloz, P (1996) “Modelling human memory: connectionism and convolution.”, The British journal of mathematical and statistical psychology. 49 ( Pt 1) 1-24.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8317.1996.tb01072.x

    • Hulme, C, Roodenrys, S (1995) “Practitioner review: verbal working memory development and its disorders.”, Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines. 36(3) 373-398.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1995.tb01297.x

    • Stothard, SE, Hulme, C (1995) “A comparison of phonological skills in children with reading comprehension difficulties and children with decoding difficulties.”, Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines. 36(3) 399-408.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1995.tb01298.x

    • BROWN, GDA, HULME, C (1995) “MODELING ITEM LENGTH EFFECTS IN MEMORY SPAN - NO REHEARSAL NEEDED”, JOURNAL OF MEMORY AND LANGUAGE. 34(5) 594-621.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.1995.1027

    • HULME, C, ROODENRYS, S, BROWN, G, MERCER, R (1995) “THE ROLE OF LONG-TERM-MEMORY MECHANISMS IN MEMORY SPAN”, BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY. 86 527-536.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1995.tb02570.x

    • COWAN, N, KELLER, TA, HULME, C, ROODENRYS, S, MCDOUGALL, S, RACK, J (1994) “VERBAL MEMORY SPAN IN CHILDREN - SPEECH TIMING CLUES TO THE MECHANISMS UNDERLYING AGE AND WORD-LENGTH EFFECTS”, JOURNAL OF MEMORY AND LANGUAGE. 33(2) 234-250.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.1994.1012

    • Snowling, M, Hulme, C (1994) “The development of phonological skills.”, Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences. 346(1315) 21-27.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1994.0124

    • McDougall, S, Hulme, C, Ellis, A, Monk, A (1994) “Learning to read: the role of short-term memory and phonological skills.”, Journal of experimental child psychology. 58(1) 112-133.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1006/jecp.1994.1028

    • HATCHER, PJ, HULME, C, ELLIS, AW (1994) “AMELIORATING EARLY READING FAILURE BY INTEGRATING THE TEACHING OF READING AND PHONOLOGICAL SKILLS - THE PHONOLOGICAL LINKAGE HYPOTHESIS”, CHILD DEVELOPMENT. 65(1) 41-57.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1994.tb00733.x

    • Roodenrys, S, Hulme, C, Alban, J, Ellis, AW, Brown, GD (1994) “Effects of word frequency and age of acquisition on short-term memory span.”, Memory & cognition. 22(6) 695-701.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.3758/bf03209254

    • Brown, GD, Hulme, C, Hyland, PD, Mitchell, IJ (1994) “Cell suicide in the developing nervous system: a functional neural network model.”, Brain research. Cognitive brain research. 2(1) 71-75.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/0926-6410(94)90022-1

    • Hatcher, PJ, Hulme, C, Ellis, AW (1994) “Ameliorating Early Reading Failure by Integrating the Teaching of Reading and Phonological Skills: The Phonological Linkage Hypothesis”, Child Development. 65(1) 41-57.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1994.tb00733.x

    • Snowling, M, Hulme, C, Goulandris, N (1994) “Word recognition in developmental dyslexia: a connectionist interpretation.”, The Quarterly journal of experimental psychology. A, Human experimental psychology. 47(4) 895-916.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/14640749408401101

    • Snowling, MJ, Hulme, C, Smith, A, Thomas, J (1994) “The effects of phonetic similarity and list length on children's sound categorization performance.”, Journal of experimental child psychology. 58(1) 160-180.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1006/jecp.1994.1030

    • RACK, J, HULME, C, SNOWLING, M, WIGHTMAN, J (1994) “THE ROLE OF PHONOLOGY IN YOUNG-CHILDREN LEARNING TO READ WORDS - THE DIRECT-MAPPING HYPOTHESIS”, JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY. 57(1) 42-71.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1006/jecp.1994.1003

    • Roodenrys, S, Hulme, C, Brown, G (1993) “The development of short-term memory span: separable effects of speech rate and long-term memory.”, Journal of experimental child psychology. 56(3) 431-442.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1006/jecp.1993.1043

    • Hulme, C, Lee, G, Brown, GD (1993) “Short-term memory impairments in Alzheimer-type dementia: evidence for separable impairments of articulatory rehearsal and long-term memory.”, Neuropsychologia. 31(2) 161-172.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/0028-3932(93)90044-z

    • Bock, JM, Monk, AF, Hulme, C (1993) “Perceptual grouping in visual word recognition.”, Memory & cognition. 21(1) 81-88.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.3758/bf03211167

    • Rack, JP, Hulme, C, Snowling, MJ (1993) “Learning to read: a theoretical synthesis.”, Advances in child development and behavior. 24 99-132.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2407(08)60301-8

    • HULME, C, SNOWLING, M (1992) “DEFICITS IN OUTPUT PHONOLOGY - AN EXPLANATION OF READING FAILURE”, COGNITIVE NEUROPSYCHOLOGY. 9(1) 47-72.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/02643299208252052

    • STOTHARD, SE, HULME, C (1992) “READING-COMPREHENSION DIFFICULTIES IN CHILDREN - THE ROLE OF LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION AND WORKING MEMORY SKILLS”, READING AND WRITING. 4(3) 245-256.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/BF01027150

    • SNOWLING, M, HULME, C, WELLS, B, GOULANDRIS, N (1992) “CONTINUITIES BETWEEN SPEECH AND SPELLING IN A CASE OF DEVELOPMENTAL DYSLEXIA”, READING AND WRITING. 4(1) 19-31.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/BF01027070

    • Raine, A, Hulme, C, Chadderton, H, Bailey, P (1991) “Verbal short-term memory span in speech-disordered children: implications for articulatory coding in short-term memory.”, Child development. 62(2) 415-423.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1991.tb01541.x

    • HULME, C, SNOWLING, M (1991) “6. Deficits in Output Phonology Cause Developmental Phonological Dyslexia”, Mind & Language. 6(2) 130-134.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0017.1991.tb00183.x

    • HULME, C, JONES, D (1991) “SPECIAL ISSUE OF THE BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY TO MARK THE RETIREMENT OF BROADBENT,DONALD FRS SCD CBE - PREFACE”, BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY. 82 257-258.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1991.tb02399.x

    • HULME, C, SNOWLING, M, QUINLAN, P (1991) “CONNECTIONISM AND LEARNING TO READ - STEPS TOWARDS A PSYCHOLOGICALLY PLAUSIBLE MODEL”, READING AND WRITING. 3(2) 159-168.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/BF00420032

    • STOTHARD, S, HULME, C (1991) “A NOTE OF CAUTION CONCERNING THE NEALE ANALYSIS OF READING-ABILITY (REVISED)”, BRITISH JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. 61 226-229.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8279.1991.tb00978.x

    • SNOWLING, M, CHIAT, S, HULME, C (1991) “WORDS, NONWORDS, AND PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSES - SOME COMMENTS ON GATHERCOLE, WILLIS, EMSLIE, AND BADDELEY”, APPLIED PSYCHOLINGUISTICS. 12(3) 369-373.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716400009279

    • HULME, C, MAUGHAN, S, BROWN, GDA (1991) “MEMORY FOR FAMILIAR AND UNFAMILIAR WORDS - EVIDENCE FOR A LONG-TERM-MEMORY CONTRIBUTION TO SHORT-TERM-MEMORY SPAN”, JOURNAL OF MEMORY AND LANGUAGE. 30(6) 685-701.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/0749-596X(91)90032-F

    • HULME, C, TORDOFF, V (1989) “WORKING MEMORY DEVELOPMENT - THE EFFECTS OF SPEECH RATE, WORD-LENGTH, AND ACOUSTIC SIMILARITY ON SERIAL-RECALL”, JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY. 47(1) 72-87.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0965(89)90063-5

    • SNOWLING, M, HULME, C (1989) “A LONGITUDINAL CASE-STUDY OF DEVELOPMENTAL PHONOLOGICAL DYSLEXIA”, COGNITIVE NEUROPSYCHOLOGY. 6(4) 379-401.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/02643298908253289

    • Hulme, C, Lord, R (1988) “The authors have replied as follows:”, Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 30(5) 689-691.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.1988.tb04814.x

    • HULME, C (1988) “THE IMPLAUSIBILITY OF LOW-LEVEL VISUAL DEFICITS AS A CAUSE OF CHILDRENS READING DIFFICULTIES”, COGNITIVE NEUROPSYCHOLOGY. 5(3) 369-374.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/02643298808252942

    • HULME, C, LORD, R (1988) “KINESTHETIC SENSITIVITY OF NORMAL AND CLUMSY CHILDREN - REPLY”, DEVELOPMENTAL MEDICINE AND CHILD NEUROLOGY. 30(5) 689-690.

    • Lord, R, Hulme, C (1988) “Patterns of rotary pursuit performance in clumsy and normal children.”, Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines. 29(5) 691-701.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1988.tb01889.x

    • Hulme, C, Snowling, M (1988) “The classification of children with reading difficulties.”, Developmental medicine and child neurology. 30(3) 398-402.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.1988.tb14569.x

    • LORD, R, HULME, C (1987) “KINESTHETIC SENSITIVITY OF NORMAL AND CLUMSY CHILDREN”, DEVELOPMENTAL MEDICINE AND CHILD NEUROLOGY. 29(6) 720-725.

    • HULME, C (1987) “THE EFFECTS OF ACOUSTIC SIMILARITY ON MEMORY IN CHILDREN - A COMPARISON BETWEEN VISUAL AND AUDITORY PRESENTATION”, APPLIED COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY. 1(1) 45-51.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1002/acp.2350010107

    • Lord, R, Hulme, C (1987) “Perceptual judgments of normal and clumsy children.”, Developmental medicine and child neurology. 29(2) 250-257.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.1987.tb02143.x

    • MACKENZIE, S, HULME, C (1987) “MEMORY SPAN DEVELOPMENT IN DOWNS-SYNDROME, SEVERELY SUBNORMAL AND NORMAL SUBJECTS”, COGNITIVE NEUROPSYCHOLOGY. 4(3) 303-319.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/02643298708252041

    • Lord, R, Hulme, C (1987) “Kinaesthetic sensitivity of normal and clumsy children.”, Developmental medicine and child neurology. 29(6) 720-725.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.1987.tb08816.x

    • HULME, C, SILVESTER, J, SMITH, S, MUIR, C (1986) “THE EFFECTS OF WORD-LENGTH ON MEMORY FOR PICTURES - EVIDENCE FOR SPEECH CODING IN YOUNG-CHILDREN”, JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY. 41(1) 61-75.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0965(86)90051-2

    • Hulme, C, Lord, R (1986) “Clumsy children--a review of recent research.”, Child: care, health and development. 12(4) 257-269.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2214.1986.tb00505.x

    • Hulme, C, Smart, A, Moran, G, McKinlay, I (1984) “Visual, kinaesthetic and cross-modal judgments of length by clumsy children: a comparison with young normal children.”, Child: care, health and development. 10(2) 117-125.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2214.1984.tb00171.x

    • HULME, C (1984) “DEVELOPMENTAL DIFFERENCES IN THE EFFECTS OF ACOUSTIC SIMILARITY ON MEMORY SPAN”, DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY. 20(4) 650-652.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.20.4.650

    • Hulme, C (1984) “Developmental differences in the effects of acoustic similarity on memory span”, Developmental Psychology. 20(4) 650-652.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.20.4.650

    • HULME, C, THOMSON, N, MUIR, C, LAWRENCE, A (1984) “SPEECH RATE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF SHORT-TERM-MEMORY SPAN”, JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY. 38(2) 241-253.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0965(84)90124-3

    • Monk, AF, Hulme, C (1983) “Errors in proofreading: evidence for the use of word shape in word recognition.”, Memory & cognition. 11(1) 16-23.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.3758/bf03197657

    • HULME, C, TURNBULL, J (1983) “INTELLIGENCE AND INSPECTION TIME IN NORMAL AND MENTALLY-RETARDED SUBJECTS”, BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY. 74(AUG) 365-370.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1983.tb01868.x

    • Hulme, C, Smart, A, Moran, G, Raine, A (1983) “Visual, kinaesthetic and cross-modal development: relationships to motor skill development.”, Perception. 12(4) 477-483.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1068/p120477

    • Hulme, C, Turnbull, J (1983) “Intelligence and inspection time in normal and mentally retarded subjects.”, British journal of psychology (London, England : 1953). 74 (Pt 3) 365-370.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1983.tb01868.x

    • Hulme, C, Biggerstaff, A, Moran, G, McKinlay, I (1982) “Visual, kinaesthetic and cross-modal judgements of length by normal and clumsy children.”, Developmental medicine and child neurology. 24(4) 461-471.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.1982.tb13650.x

    • HULME, C, BIGGERSTAFF, A, MORAN, G, MCKINLAY, I (1982) “VISUAL, KINESTHETIC AND CROSS-MODAL JUDGEMENTS OF LENGTH BY NORMAL AND CLUMSY CHILDREN”, DEVELOPMENTAL MEDICINE AND CHILD NEUROLOGY. 24(4) 461-471.

    • Hulme, C, Smart, A, Moran, G (1982) “Visual perceptual deficits in clumsy children.”, Neuropsychologia. 20(4) 475-481.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/0028-3932(82)90046-x

    • Hulme, C (1981) “The effects of manual tracing on memory in normal and retarded readers: some implications for multi-sensory teaching.”, Psychological research. 43(2) 179-191.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/bf00309828

    • HULME, C, RICHARDSON, JR (1981) “THE EFFECTS OF ARTICULATORY SUPPRESSION ON READING IDEOGRAPHIC AND ALPHABETIC NUMBERS”, QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY SECTION A-HUMAN EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY. 33(MAY) 121-132.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/14640748108400779

    • Hulme, C (1979) “The interaction of visual and motor memory for graphic forms following tracing.”, The Quarterly journal of experimental psychology. 31(2) 249-261.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/14640747908400724

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