Department of Education

Charles Hulme

Professor of Psychology and Education

College Affiliation: Brasenose College

Charles Hulme is Professor of Psychology and Education in the Department of Education and William Golding Senior Research Fellow at Brasenose College.

He has broad research interests in reading, language and memory processes and their development and is an expert on randomized controlled trials in Education. His work on reading development has made important contributions to understanding the role of phonological skills in learning to read. He has also explored the role of wider language skills (particularly vocabulary knowledge and grammatical skills) as influences on the development of reading comprehension.

His publications include a number of assessment materials including the Phonological Abilities Test (1997), the York Assessment of Reading for Comprehension (YARC, 2009) and Sound Linkage (2014) as well as several books dealing with various aspects of reading development. He is the former Editor-in –Chief of the journal ‘Scientific Studies of Reading’ (2007-2009) and is currently a Senior Editor of the Association of Psychological Science’s flagship journal, Psychological Science.

In 2009 he published “Developmental disorders of language, learning and cognition” (Wiley-Blackwell; co-authored with Maggie Snowling). He holds an honorary doctorate from the University of Oslo (2014) and is a member of Academia Europea and a Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences. He received the Feitelson Research Award from the International Reading Association (1998) and the Marion Welchman International Award for Contributions to the study of Dyslexia from the British Dyslexia Association (2016).  He is a Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences, a Fellow of Academia Europaea and a Fellow of the British Academy

Charles Hulme would welcome informal contacts from prospective doctoral students interested in the following topics:

Developmental dyslexia
Reading comprehension impairment
The development of arithmetic skills
Reading and language intervention

Research interests:
Developmental cognitive disorders; development of reading, language and arithmetic skills in children; randomized controlled trials in education.

Google Scholar Citations.

Funded Research Projects:

  • Newbury, D. Snowling, M. & Hulme, C.

    2015-2018

    A language and reading intervention programme for Chile, piloted in the Robinson Crusoe population. ESRC. £348,731. ES/N01913X/1

  • Hulme, C., Nash, H., & Halliday, L.

    2015-2018

    The role of automatic letter-speech sound integration in reading development and dyslexia. ESRC. £352,000

  • Hulme, C., & Snowling, The Nuffield Early Language Intervention Programme – Primary

    2017-2019

    A randomized controlled trial. Education Endowment Foundation. £450K

  • Herman, R., Kyle, F., Roy, P.

    2018-2019

    Evaluating a language and reading programme for deaf and hearing children. £100,000 . Nuffield Foundation.

  • Hulme, C., & Snowling, The Nuffield Nursery Language Programme

    2019-2021

    Development and Evaluation. £571,825.87 Grant ref EDO/43387. Nuffield Foundation

Doctoral Applications

  • Developmental dyslexia
  • Reading comprehension impairment
  • The development of arithmetic skills
  • Reading and language intervention

Publications:

  • Books

  • Book chapters

    • Brown, GDA, Preece, T, Hulme, C (2014) “Learning to learn in a connectionist network: The development of associative learning”, In: Connectionist Models of Memory and Language. 41-56
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.4324/9781315794495

    • Stuart, GP, Hulme, C (2008) “Lexical and semantic influences on immediate serial recall: A role for redintegration”, In: Interactions Between Short-Term and Long-Term Memory in the Verbal Domain. 157-176
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.4324/9780203938966

    • Snowling, MJ, Hulme, C (2008) “Reading intervention for children with language learning difficulties”, In: Understanding Developmental Language Disorders: From Theory to Practice. 175-188
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.4324/9780203882580

  • Conference papers

    • Brown, GDA, Hyland, P, Hulme, C (1994) “Effects of varying memory vector size in a network that learns to learn”, IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks - Conference Proceedings. 4 2291-2296.

  • Journal articles

    • Tobia, V, Brigstocke, S, Hulme, C, Snowling, MJ (2018) “Developmental changes in the cognitive and educational profiles of children and adolescents with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.”, Journal of applied research in intellectual disabilities : JARID. 31(1) e177-e181.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/jar.12344

    • Hulme, C (2018) “Verbal task demands are key in explaining the relationship between paired-associate learning and reading ability.”, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology.

    • Lervåg, A, Hulme, C, Melby-Lervåg, M (2018) “Unpicking the Developmental Relationship Between Oral Language Skills and Reading Comprehension: It's Simple, But Complex.”, Child development. 89(5) 1821-1838.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12861

    • Hulme, C, Zhou, L, Tong, X, Lervåg, A, Burgoyne, K (2018) “Learning to read in Chinese: Evidence for reciprocal relationships between word reading and oral language skills.”, Developmental science. e12745+.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12745

    • Clayton, FJ, Hulme, C (2018) “Automatic Activation of Sounds by Letters Occurs Early in Development but is not Impaired in Children With Dyslexia”, SCIENTIFIC STUDIES OF READING. 22(2) 137-151.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/10888438.2017.1390754

    • Worster, E, Pimperton, H, Ralph-Lewis, A, Monroy, L, Hulme, C, MacSweeney, M (2018) “Eye Movements During Visual Speech Perception in Deaf and Hearing Children.”, Language learning. 68(Suppl Suppl 1) 159-179.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12264

    • Clayton, FJ, Sears, C, Davis, A, Hulme, C (2018) “Verbal task demands are key in explaining the relationship between paired-associate learning and reading ability.”, Journal of experimental child psychology. 171 46-54.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2018.01.004

    • Snowling, MJ, Gooch, D, McArthur, G, Hulme, C (2018) “Language Skills, but Not Frequency Discrimination, Predict Reading Skills in Children at Risk of Dyslexia.”, Psychological science. 29(8) 1270-1282.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1177/0956797618763090

    • Dyson, H, Solity, J, Best, W, Hulme, C (2018) “Effectiveness of a small-group vocabulary intervention programme: evidence from a regression discontinuity design”, International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders. 53(5) 947-958.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/1460-6984.12404

    • Burgoyne, K, Gardner, R, Whiteley, H, Snowling, MJ, Hulme, C (2018) “Evaluation of a parent-delivered early language enrichment programme: evidence from a randomised controlled trial.”, Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines. 59(5) 545-555.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12819

    • Snowling, MJ, Lervåg, A, Nash, HM, Hulme, C (2018) “Longitudinal relationships between speech perception, phonological skills and reading in children at high-risk of dyslexia.”, Developmental science. e12723+.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12723

    • Puglisi, ML, Hulme, C, Hamilton, LG, Snowling, MJ (2017) “The Home Literacy Environment Is a Correlate, but Perhaps Not a Cause, of Variations in Children's Language and Literacy Development.”, Scientific studies of reading : the official journal of the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading. 21(6) 498-514.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/10888438.2017.1346660

    • Clarkson, L, Roodenrys, S, Miller, LM, Hulme, C (2017) “The phonological neighbourhood effect on short-term memory for order.”, Memory (Hove, England). 25(3) 391-402.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/09658211.2016.1179330

    • Burgoyne, K, Witteveen, K, Tolan, A, Malone, S, Hulme, C (2017) “Pattern Understanding: Relationships With Arithmetic and Reading Development”, CHILD DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVES. 11(4) 239-244.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/cdep.12240

    • Scerri, TS, Macpherson, E, Martinelli, A, Wa, WC, Monaco, AP, Stein, J, Zheng, M, Suk-Han Ho, C, McBride, C, Snowling, M, Hulme, C, Hayiou-Thomas, ME, Waye, MMY, Talcott, JB, Paracchini, S (2017) “The DCDC2 deletion is not a risk factor for dyslexia.”, Translational psychiatry. 7(7) e1182+.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1038/tp.2017.151

    • Bowyer-Crane, C, Fricke, S, Schaefer, B, Lervåg, A, Hulme, C (2017) “Early literacy and comprehension skills in children learning English as an additional language and monolingual children with language weaknesses.”, Reading and writing. 30(4) 771-790.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-016-9699-8

    • Fricke, S, Burgoyne, K, Bowyer-Crane, C, Kyriacou, M, Zosimidou, A, Maxwell, L, Lervåg, A, Snowling, MJ, Hulme, C (2017) “The efficacy of early language intervention in mainstream school settings: a randomized controlled trial.”, Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines. 58(10) 1141-1151.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12737

    • Clarke, PJ, Paul, S-AS, Smith, G, Snowling, MJ, Hulme, C (2017) “Reading Intervention for Poor Readers at the Transition to Secondary School”, SCIENTIFIC STUDIES OF READING. 21(5) 408-427.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/10888438.2017.1318393

    • Dyson, H, Best, W, Solity, J, Hulme, C (2017) “Training Mispronunciation Correction and Word Meanings Improves Children's Ability to Learn to Read Words”, SCIENTIFIC STUDIES OF READING. 21(5) 392-407.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/10888438.2017.1315424

    • Lyster, S-AH, Lervag, AO, Hulme, C (2016) “Preschool morphological training produces long-term improvements in reading comprehension (vol 29, pg 1269, 2016)”, READING AND WRITING. 29(6) 1289-1289.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-016-9647-7

    • Kail, RV, Lervåg, A, Hulme, C (2016) “Longitudinal evidence linking processing speed to the development of reasoning.”, Developmental science. 19(6) 1067-1074.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12352

    • Long, I, Malone, SA, Tolan, A, Burgoyne, K, Heron-Delaney, M, Witteveen, K, Hulme, C (2016) “The cognitive foundations of early arithmetic skills: It is counting and number judgment, but not finger gnosis, that count.”, Journal of experimental child psychology. 152 327-334.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2016.08.005

    • Klem, M, Hagtvet, B, Hulme, C, Gustafsson, J-E (2016) “Screening for Language Delay: Growth Trajectories of Language Ability in Low- and High-Performing Children.”, Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR. 59(5) 1035-1045.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1044/2016_jslhr-l-15-0289

    • Lyster, S-AH, Lervåg, AO, Hulme, C (2016) “Preschool morphological training produces long-term improvements in reading comprehension.”, Reading and writing. 29 1269-1288.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-016-9636-x

    • Melby-Lervåg, M, Redick, TS, Hulme, C (2016) “Working Memory Training Does Not Improve Performance on Measures of Intelligence or Other Measures of "Far Transfer": Evidence From a Meta-Analytic Review.”, Perspectives on psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science. 11(4) 512-534.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1177/1745691616635612

    • Melby-Lervåg, M, Hulme, C (2016) “There is no convincing evidence that working memory training is effective: A reply to Au et al. (2014) and Karbach and Verhaeghen (2014).”, Psychonomic bulletin & review. 23(1) 324-330.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-015-0862-z

    • Gooch, D, Hulme, C, Nash, HM, Snowling, MJ (2014) “Comorbidities in preschool children at family risk of dyslexia.”, Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines. 55(3) 237-246.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12139

    • Mengoni, SE, Nash, HM, Hulme, C (2014) “Learning to read new words in individuals with Down syndrome: testing the role of phonological knowledge.”, Research in developmental disabilities. 35(5) 1098-1109.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2014.01.030

    • Nash, HM, Hulme, C, Gooch, D, Snowling, MJ (2013) “Preschool language profiles of children at family risk of dyslexia: continuities with specific language impairment.”, Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines. 54(9) 958-968.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12091

    • Fricke, S, Bowyer-Crane, C, Haley, AJ, Hulme, C, Snowling, MJ (2013) “Efficacy of language intervention in the early years.”, Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines. 54(3) 280-290.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12010

    • Hulme, C, Bowyer-Crane, C, Carroll, JM, Duff, FJ, Snowling, MJ (2012) “The causal role of phoneme awareness and letter-sound knowledge in learning to read: combining intervention studies with mediation analyses.”, Psychological science. 23(6) 572-577.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1177/0956797611435921

    • Naess, K-AB, Melby-Lervag, M, Hulme, C, Lyster, S-AH (2012) “Reading skills in children with Down syndrome: A meta-analytic review (vol 33, pg 737, 2011)”, RESEARCH IN DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES. 33(4) 1039-1040.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2012.01.012

    • Hulme, C, Bowyer-Crane, C, Carroll, JM, Duff, FJ, Snowling, MJ (2012) “The Causal Role of Phoneme Awareness and Letter-Sound Knowledge in Learning to Read: Combining Intervention Studies With Mediation Analyses”, PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE. 23(6) 572-577.

    • Snowling, MJ, Hulme, C (2011) “Evidence-based interventions for reading and language difficulties: creating a virtuous circle.”, The British journal of educational psychology. 81(Pt 1) 1-23.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8279.2010.02014.x

    • Carroll, JM, Bowyer-Crane, C, Duff, FJ, Hulme, C, Snowling, MJ (2011) “Developing Language and Literacy: Effective Intervention in the Early Years”, Developing Language and Literacy: Effective Intervention in the Early Years.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1002/9780470977460

    • Dretzke, J, Round, J, Connock, M, Tubeuf, S, Pennant, M, Fry-Smith, A, Hulme, C, McCabe, C, Meads, C (2010) “Imatinib as adjuvant treatment following resection of KIT-positive gastrointestinal stromal tumours.”, Health technology assessment (Winchester, England). 14(Suppl. 2) 63-70.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.3310/hta14suppl2/09

    • Snowling, MJ, Hulme, C (2009) Reading and Other Specific Learning Difficulties. 802-819.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1002/9781444300895.ch48

    • Snowling, MJ, Hulme, C (2008) Learning to Read with a Language Impairment. 397-412.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1002/9780470757642.ch21

    • Rack, JP, Snowling, MJ, Hulme, C, Gibbs, S (2007) “No evidence that an exercise-based treatment programme (DDAT) has specific benefits for children with reading difficulties.”, Dyslexia (Chichester, England). 13(2) 97-104.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1002/dys.335

    • Durand, M, Hulme, C, Larkin, R, Snowling, M (2006) “Erratum: "The cognitive foundations of reading and arithmetic skills in 7- to 10-year-olds" (Journal of Experimental Child Psychology (2005) vol. 91 (113-136) 10.1016/j.jecp.2005.01.003)”, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 93(3) 282-283.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2005.07.004

    • Hatcher, PJ, Goetz, K, Snowling, MJ, Hulme, C, Gibbs, S, Smith, G (2006) “Evidence for the effectiveness of the Early Literacy Support programme.”, The British journal of educational psychology. 76(Pt 2) 351-367.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1348/000709905x39170

    • Durand, M, Hulme, C, Larkin, R, Snowling, M (2005) “The cognitive foundations of reading and arithmetic skills in 7- to 10-year-olds.”, Journal of experimental child psychology. 91(2) 113-136.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2005.01.003

    • Roodenrys, S, Hulme, C, Lethbridge, A, Hinton, M, Nimmo, LM (2002) “Word-frequency and phonological-neighborhood effects on verbal short-term memory.”, Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition. 28(6) 1019-1034.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1037//0278-7393.28.6.1019

    • Hulme, C, Newton, P, Cowan, N, Stuart, G, Brown, G (1999) “Think before you speak: pauses, memory search, and trace redintegration processes in verbal memory span.”, Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition. 25(2) 447-463.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1037//0278-7393.25.2.447

    • Hatcher, PJ, Hulme, C (1999) “Phonemes, rhymes, and intelligence as predictors of children's responsiveness to remedial reading instruction: evidence from a longitudinal intervention study.”, Journal of experimental child psychology. 72(2) 130-153.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1006/jecp.1998.2480

    • Walker, I, Hulme, C (1999) “Concrete words are easier to recall than abstract words: Evidence for a semantic contribution to short-term serial recall”, JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION. 25(5) 1256-1271.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.25.5.1256

    • Walker, I, Hulme, C (1999) “Concrete Words Are Easier to Recall Than Abstract Words: Evidence for a Semantic Contribution to Short-Term Serial Recall”, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition. 25(5) 1256-1271.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.25.5.1256

    • Laing, E, Hulme, C (1999) “Phonological and semantic processes influence beginning readers' ability to learn to read words.”, Journal of experimental child psychology. 73(3) 183-207.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1006/jecp.1999.2500

    • Brown, GDA, Vousden, JI, McCormack, T, Hulme, C (1999) “The development of memory for serial order: A temporal-contextual distinctiveness model”, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY. 34(5-6) 389-402.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/002075999399747

    • Muter, V, Hulme, C, Snowling, M, Taylor, S (1998) “Segmentation, not rhyming, predicts early progress in learning to read.”, Journal of experimental child psychology. 71(1) 3-27.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1006/jecp.1998.2453

    • Hulme, C, Muter, V, Snowling, M (1998) “Segmentation does predict early progress in learning to read better than rhyme: A reply to Bryant”, JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY. 71(1) 39-44.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1006/jecp.1998.2456

    • Muter, V, Hulme, C, Snowling, M, Taylor, S (1997) “Segmentation, not rhyming, predicts early progress in learning to read.”, Journal of experimental child psychology. 65(3) 370-396.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1006/jecp.1996.2365

    • Lowe, G, Britton, R, Carpenter, E, Castle, H, Clayton, C, Hulme, C, Mara, D, Ormerod, J (1997) “Social drinking and laughter.”, Psychological reports. 81(2) 684+.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1997.81.2.684

    • Hulme, C, Roodenrys, S, Schweickert, R, Brown, GD, Martin, M, Stuart, G (1997) “Word-frequency effects on short-term memory tasks: evidence for a redintegration process in immediate serial recall.”, Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition. 23(5) 1217-1232.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1037//0278-7393.23.5.1217

    • Nation, K, Hulme, C (1997) “Phonemic segmentation, not onset-rime segmentation, predicts early reading and spelling skills”, READING RESEARCH QUARTERLY. 32(2) 154-167.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1598/RRQ.32.2.2

    • Snowling, M, Hulme, C, Nation, K (1997) “A connectionist perspective on the development of reading skills in children.”, Trends in cognitive sciences. 1(3) 88-91.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/s1364-6613(97)89053-5

    • Sims, K, Henderson, SE, Morton, J, Hulme, C (1996) “The remediation of clumsiness. II. Is kinaesthesis the answer?”, Developmental medicine and child neurology. 38(11) 988-997.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.1996.tb15059.x

    • Snowling, MJ, Bryant, PE, Hulme, C (1996) “Theoretical and methodological pitfalls in making comparisons between developmental and acquired dyslexia: Some comments on A. Castles & M. Coltheart (1993)”, READING AND WRITING. 8(5) 443-451.

    • Stothard, SE, Snowling, MJ, Hulme, C (1996) “Deficits in phonology but not dyslexic?”, COGNITIVE NEUROPSYCHOLOGY. 13(5) 641-672.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/026432996381872

    • Nation, K, Hulme, C (1996) “The Automatic Activation of Sound-Letter Knowledge: An Alternative Interpretation of Analogy and Priming Effects in Early Spelling Development”, Journal of experimental child psychology. 63(2) 416-435.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1006/jecp.1996.0056

    • Brown, GD, Hulme, C, Dalloz, P (1996) “Modelling human memory: connectionism and convolution.”, The British journal of mathematical and statistical psychology. 49 ( Pt 1) 1-24.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8317.1996.tb01072.x

    • Sims, K, Henderson, SE, Hulme, C, Morton, J (1996) “The remediation of clumsiness. I: An evaluation of Laszlo's kinaesthetic approach.”, Developmental medicine and child neurology. 38(11) 976-987.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.1996.tb15058.x

    • HULME, C, ROODENRYS, S, BROWN, G, MERCER, R (1995) “THE ROLE OF LONG-TERM-MEMORY MECHANISMS IN MEMORY SPAN”, BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY. 86 527-536.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1995.tb02570.x

    • Stothard, SE, Hulme, C (1995) “A comparison of phonological skills in children with reading comprehension difficulties and children with decoding difficulties.”, Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines. 36(3) 399-408.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1995.tb01298.x

    • Hulme, C, Roodenrys, S (1995) “Practitioner review: verbal working memory development and its disorders.”, Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines. 36(3) 373-398.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1995.tb01297.x

    • BROWN, GDA, HULME, C (1995) “MODELING ITEM LENGTH EFFECTS IN MEMORY SPAN - NO REHEARSAL NEEDED”, JOURNAL OF MEMORY AND LANGUAGE. 34(5) 594-621.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.1995.1027

    • RACK, J, HULME, C, SNOWLING, M, WIGHTMAN, J (1994) “THE ROLE OF PHONOLOGY IN YOUNG-CHILDREN LEARNING TO READ WORDS - THE DIRECT-MAPPING HYPOTHESIS”, JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY. 57(1) 42-71.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1006/jecp.1994.1003

    • COWAN, N, KELLER, TA, HULME, C, ROODENRYS, S, MCDOUGALL, S, RACK, J (1994) “VERBAL MEMORY SPAN IN CHILDREN - SPEECH TIMING CLUES TO THE MECHANISMS UNDERLYING AGE AND WORD-LENGTH EFFECTS”, JOURNAL OF MEMORY AND LANGUAGE. 33(2) 234-250.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.1994.1012

    • McDougall, S, Hulme, C, Ellis, A, Monk, A (1994) “Learning to read: the role of short-term memory and phonological skills.”, Journal of experimental child psychology. 58(1) 112-133.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1006/jecp.1994.1028

    • Snowling, MJ, Hulme, C, Smith, A, Thomas, J (1994) “The effects of phonetic similarity and list length on children's sound categorization performance.”, Journal of experimental child psychology. 58(1) 160-180.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1006/jecp.1994.1030

    • Snowling, M, Hulme, C (1994) “The development of phonological skills.”, Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences. 346(1315) 21-27.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1994.0124

    • Hatcher, PJ, Hulme, C, Ellis, AW (1994) “Ameliorating Early Reading Failure by Integrating the Teaching of Reading and Phonological Skills: The Phonological Linkage Hypothesis”, Child Development. 65(1) 41-57.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1994.tb00733.x

    • Snowling, M, Hulme, C, Goulandris, N (1994) “Word recognition in developmental dyslexia: a connectionist interpretation.”, The Quarterly journal of experimental psychology. A, Human experimental psychology. 47(4) 895-916.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/14640749408401101

    • Roodenrys, S, Hulme, C, Alban, J, Ellis, AW, Brown, GD (1994) “Effects of word frequency and age of acquisition on short-term memory span.”, Memory & cognition. 22(6) 695-701.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.3758/bf03209254

    • HATCHER, PJ, HULME, C, ELLIS, AW (1994) “AMELIORATING EARLY READING FAILURE BY INTEGRATING THE TEACHING OF READING AND PHONOLOGICAL SKILLS - THE PHONOLOGICAL LINKAGE HYPOTHESIS”, CHILD DEVELOPMENT. 65(1) 41-57.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.2307/1131364

    • Brown, GD, Hulme, C, Hyland, PD, Mitchell, IJ (1994) “Cell suicide in the developing nervous system: a functional neural network model.”, Brain research. Cognitive brain research. 2(1) 71-75.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/0926-6410(94)90022-1

    • Hulme, C, Lee, G, Brown, GD (1993) “Short-term memory impairments in Alzheimer-type dementia: evidence for separable impairments of articulatory rehearsal and long-term memory.”, Neuropsychologia. 31(2) 161-172.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/0028-3932(93)90044-z

    • Bock, JM, Monk, AF, Hulme, C (1993) “Perceptual grouping in visual word recognition.”, Memory & cognition. 21(1) 81-88.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.3758/bf03211167

    • Rack, JP, Hulme, C, Snowling, MJ (1993) “Learning to read: a theoretical synthesis.”, Advances in child development and behavior. 24 99-132.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2407(08)60301-8

    • Roodenrys, S, Hulme, C, Brown, G (1993) “The development of short-term memory span: separable effects of speech rate and long-term memory.”, Journal of experimental child psychology. 56(3) 431-442.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1006/jecp.1993.1043

    • STOTHARD, SE, HULME, C (1992) “READING-COMPREHENSION DIFFICULTIES IN CHILDREN - THE ROLE OF LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION AND WORKING MEMORY SKILLS”, READING AND WRITING. 4(3) 245-256.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/BF01027150

    • SNOWLING, M, HULME, C, WELLS, B, GOULANDRIS, N (1992) “CONTINUITIES BETWEEN SPEECH AND SPELLING IN A CASE OF DEVELOPMENTAL DYSLEXIA”, READING AND WRITING. 4(1) 19-31.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/BF01027070

    • HULME, C, SNOWLING, M (1992) “DEFICITS IN OUTPUT PHONOLOGY - AN EXPLANATION OF READING FAILURE”, COGNITIVE NEUROPSYCHOLOGY. 9(1) 47-72.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/02643299208252052

    • HULME, C, SNOWLING, M (1991) “6. Deficits in Output Phonology Cause Developmental Phonological Dyslexia”, Mind & Language. 6(2) 130-134.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0017.1991.tb00183.x

    • HULME, C, JONES, D (1991) “SPECIAL ISSUE OF THE BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY TO MARK THE RETIREMENT OF BROADBENT,DONALD FRS SCD CBE - PREFACE”, BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY. 82 257-258.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1991.tb02399.x

    • HULME, C, MAUGHAN, S, BROWN, GDA (1991) “MEMORY FOR FAMILIAR AND UNFAMILIAR WORDS - EVIDENCE FOR A LONG-TERM-MEMORY CONTRIBUTION TO SHORT-TERM-MEMORY SPAN”, JOURNAL OF MEMORY AND LANGUAGE. 30(6) 685-701.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/0749-596X(91)90032-F

    • HULME, C, SNOWLING, M, QUINLAN, P (1991) “CONNECTIONISM AND LEARNING TO READ - STEPS TOWARDS A PSYCHOLOGICALLY PLAUSIBLE MODEL”, READING AND WRITING. 3(2) 159-168.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/BF00420032

    • STOTHARD, S, HULME, C (1991) “A NOTE OF CAUTION CONCERNING THE NEALE ANALYSIS OF READING-ABILITY (REVISED)”, BRITISH JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. 61 226-229.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8279.1991.tb00978.x

    • SNOWLING, M, CHIAT, S, HULME, C (1991) “WORDS, NONWORDS, AND PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSES - SOME COMMENTS ON GATHERCOLE, WILLIS, EMSLIE, AND BADDELEY”, APPLIED PSYCHOLINGUISTICS. 12(3) 369-373.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716400009279

    • Raine, A, Hulme, C, Chadderton, H, Bailey, P (1991) “Verbal short-term memory span in speech-disordered children: implications for articulatory coding in short-term memory.”, Child development. 62(2) 415-423.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1991.tb01541.x

    • SNOWLING, M, HULME, C (1989) “A LONGITUDINAL CASE-STUDY OF DEVELOPMENTAL PHONOLOGICAL DYSLEXIA”, COGNITIVE NEUROPSYCHOLOGY. 6(4) 379-401.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/02643298908253289

    • HULME, C, TORDOFF, V (1989) “WORKING MEMORY DEVELOPMENT - THE EFFECTS OF SPEECH RATE, WORD-LENGTH, AND ACOUSTIC SIMILARITY ON SERIAL-RECALL”, JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY. 47(1) 72-87.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0965(89)90063-5

    • HULME, C (1988) “THE IMPLAUSIBILITY OF LOW-LEVEL VISUAL DEFICITS AS A CAUSE OF CHILDRENS READING DIFFICULTIES”, COGNITIVE NEUROPSYCHOLOGY. 5(3) 369-374.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/02643298808252942

    • HULME, C, LORD, R (1988) “KINESTHETIC SENSITIVITY OF NORMAL AND CLUMSY CHILDREN - REPLY”, DEVELOPMENTAL MEDICINE AND CHILD NEUROLOGY. 30(5) 689-690.

    • Hulme, C, Snowling, M (1988) “The classification of children with reading difficulties.”, Developmental medicine and child neurology. 30(3) 398-402.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.1988.tb14569.x

    • Hulme, C, Lord, R (1988) “The authors have replied as follows:”, Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 30(5) 689-691.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.1988.tb04814.x

    • Lord, R, Hulme, C (1988) “Patterns of rotary pursuit performance in clumsy and normal children.”, Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines. 29(5) 691-701.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1988.tb01889.x

    • HULME, C (1987) “THE EFFECTS OF ACOUSTIC SIMILARITY ON MEMORY IN CHILDREN - A COMPARISON BETWEEN VISUAL AND AUDITORY PRESENTATION”, APPLIED COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY. 1(1) 45-51.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1002/acp.2350010107

    • LORD, R, HULME, C (1987) “KINESTHETIC SENSITIVITY OF NORMAL AND CLUMSY CHILDREN”, DEVELOPMENTAL MEDICINE AND CHILD NEUROLOGY. 29(6) 720-725.

    • MACKENZIE, S, HULME, C (1987) “MEMORY SPAN DEVELOPMENT IN DOWNS-SYNDROME, SEVERELY SUBNORMAL AND NORMAL SUBJECTS”, COGNITIVE NEUROPSYCHOLOGY. 4(3) 303-319.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/02643298708252041

    • Lord, R, Hulme, C (1987) “Kinaesthetic sensitivity of normal and clumsy children.”, Developmental medicine and child neurology. 29(6) 720-725.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.1987.tb08816.x

    • Lord, R, Hulme, C (1987) “Perceptual judgments of normal and clumsy children.”, Developmental medicine and child neurology. 29(2) 250-257.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.1987.tb02143.x

    • Hulme, C, Lord, R (1986) “Clumsy children--a review of recent research.”, Child: care, health and development. 12(4) 257-269.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2214.1986.tb00505.x

    • HULME, C, SILVESTER, J, SMITH, S, MUIR, C (1986) “THE EFFECTS OF WORD-LENGTH ON MEMORY FOR PICTURES - EVIDENCE FOR SPEECH CODING IN YOUNG-CHILDREN”, JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY. 41(1) 61-75.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0965(86)90051-2

    • Hulme, C, Smart, A, Moran, G, McKinlay, I (1984) “Visual, kinaesthetic and cross-modal judgments of length by clumsy children: a comparison with young normal children.”, Child: care, health and development. 10(2) 117-125.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2214.1984.tb00171.x

    • HULME, C, THOMSON, N, MUIR, C, LAWRENCE, A (1984) “SPEECH RATE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF SHORT-TERM-MEMORY SPAN”, JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY. 38(2) 241-253.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0965(84)90124-3

    • HULME, C (1984) “DEVELOPMENTAL DIFFERENCES IN THE EFFECTS OF ACOUSTIC SIMILARITY ON MEMORY SPAN”, DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY. 20(4) 650-652.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1037//0012-1649.20.4.650

    • Hulme, C (1984) “Developmental differences in the effects of acoustic similarity on memory span”, Developmental Psychology. 20(4) 650-652.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.20.4.650

    • Hulme, C, Smart, A, Moran, G, Raine, A (1983) “Visual, kinaesthetic and cross-modal development: relationships to motor skill development.”, Perception. 12(4) 477-483.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1068/p120477

    • Hulme, C, Turnbull, J (1983) “Intelligence and inspection time in normal and mentally retarded subjects.”, British journal of psychology (London, England : 1953). 74 (Pt 3) 365-370.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1983.tb01868.x

    • HULME, C, TURNBULL, J (1983) “INTELLIGENCE AND INSPECTION TIME IN NORMAL AND MENTALLY-RETARDED SUBJECTS”, BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY. 74(AUG) 365-370.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1983.tb01868.x

    • Monk, AF, Hulme, C (1983) “Errors in proofreading: evidence for the use of word shape in word recognition.”, Memory & cognition. 11(1) 16-23.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.3758/bf03197657

    • Hulme, C, Biggerstaff, A, Moran, G, McKinlay, I (1982) “Visual, kinaesthetic and cross-modal judgements of length by normal and clumsy children.”, Developmental medicine and child neurology. 24(4) 461-471.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.1982.tb13650.x

    • Hulme, C, Smart, A, Moran, G (1982) “Visual perceptual deficits in clumsy children.”, Neuropsychologia. 20(4) 475-481.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/0028-3932(82)90046-x

    • HULME, C, BIGGERSTAFF, A, MORAN, G, MCKINLAY, I (1982) “VISUAL, KINESTHETIC AND CROSS-MODAL JUDGEMENTS OF LENGTH BY NORMAL AND CLUMSY CHILDREN”, DEVELOPMENTAL MEDICINE AND CHILD NEUROLOGY. 24(4) 461-471.

    • Hulme, C (1981) “The effects of manual tracing on memory in normal and retarded readers: some implications for multi-sensory teaching.”, Psychological research. 43(2) 179-191.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/bf00309828

    • HULME, C, RICHARDSON, JR (1981) “THE EFFECTS OF ARTICULATORY SUPPRESSION ON READING IDEOGRAPHIC AND ALPHABETIC NUMBERS”, QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY SECTION A-HUMAN EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY. 33(MAY) 121-132.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/14640748108400779

    • Hulme, C (1979) “The interaction of visual and motor memory for graphic forms following tracing.”, The Quarterly journal of experimental psychology. 31(2) 249-261.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/14640747908400724

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