Department of Education

Ewart Keep

Professor Emeritus

Professor Ewart Keep holds the chair in Education, Training and Skills at the Department of Education, Oxford University.

He was one of the founders and a director of the Centre on Skills, Knowledge & Organisational Performance (SKOPE). SKOPE was funded by the ESRC for the first 15 years of its life. Before coming to Oxford, he worked for 21 years in Warwick Business School, and then at the School of Social Sciences, Cardiff University. He has been at Oxford since 2013.

His first degree was in Modern History, Economic History and Politics (Royal Holloway College, University of London) and his PhD is in Industrial relations (University of Warwick). He has researched and written on apprenticeships, personnel management in schools and HE, HE policy more generally, the relationship between skills and economic performance, managerial attitudes towards investing in skills, qualifications reform, the youth labour market, adult and lifelong learning, and skills policy formation and enactment across the four UK nations. He is currently managing an ESRC-funded project on NEETs (those not in education, employment or training) in the UK, as part of a wider European project on NEETs.

He has served on major committees of the Scottish Funding Council, Higher Education Funding Council for England, and the Higher Education Funding Council for Wales, as well as advising HM Treasury, DBIS, DfE, the No.10 Policy Unit, the Cabinet Office, the UK Commission on Employment and Skills, the Scottish, Welsh, New South Wales, Queensland and New Zealand governments, the NAO, the OECD, and various professional bodies and think tanks (including Demos and IPPR). He also acted as an advisor to a Government Office for Science (Foresight) project on adult learning and the changing labour market, and was a member of the Greater London Authority’s task and finish group on the skills strategy for London. He is currently a member of the Scottish Government’s Labour Market Strategy Group.

Doctoral Applications

Ewart welcomes doctoral applications from students interested in the following research areas:

  • Links between skills and economic performance
  • Skill policy formation
  • Apprenticeships
  • Adult training and re-training
  • The governance of skills formation activities
  • Vocational education colleges
  • The links between work organisation, job design and skills
  • Workplace innovation and skills


  • Featured Publications

  • Books

    • Pring, R, Hayward, G, Hodgson, A, Johnson, J, Keep, E, Oancea, A, Rees, G, Spours, K, Wilde, S (2012) Education for all: The future of education and training for 14-19 year olds. London: Routledge.

    • Hermannsson, K, Keep, EJ, Lecca, P, Peat, J, Sutton, L, Swales, K (2012) Further Education, the Scottish Labour Market and the Wider Economy. Edinburgh: David Hume Institute.

    • Warhurst, C, Grugulis, I, Keep, E (2006) The Skills that Matter. Palgrave Macmillan.

    • Evans, K, Hodkinson, P, Keep, EJ, Maguire, M, Raffe, D, Rainbird, H, Senker, P, Unwin, L (1997) Working to Learn. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.

  • Book chapters

    • Keep, EJ, James, S (2012) “Making Bad Jobs Better – Trends, determinants and responses to job quality in the twenty-first century”, In: C Warhurst, P Findlay, C Tilly, F Carre (eds.) Making Bad Jobs Better – Trends, determinants and responses to job quality in the twenty-first century. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 240-253

    • James, SF, Bryson,, J, Keep, E (2012) “Recruitment and Selection”, In: S Bach, M Edwards (eds.) Managing Human Resources: Human resource Management in transition. 5th Edition. Chichester: Wiley.

    • Keep, EJ (2011) “Education and the Economy”, In: N Lawson, K Spours (eds.) Education for the Good Society The Values and Principles of a New Comprehensive Vision. London: Compass. 49-52

    • Keep, EJ (2011) “Education, Employment and the Economy: Time to Bid the Past Goodbye?”, In: Open to Ideas. London: Associate Parliamentary Skills Group. 31-33

    • Keep, EJ (2011) “The English skills policy narrative”, In: A Hodgson, K Spours, M Warring (eds.) Post-compulsory Education and Lifelong Learning Across the United Kingdom Policy, Organisation and Governance. London: Institute of Education. 18-38

    • James, SF, Keep, E (2011) “Employer Demand for Apprenticeships”, In: T Dolphin, T Lanning (eds.) Rethinking Apprenticeships. London: Institute for Public Policy Research IPPR. 55-65

    • Keep, EJ, Payne, J, Rees, G (2010) “Devolution and strategies for learning and skills: the Leitch Report and its alternatives”, In: G Lodge (ed.) Devolution in Practice 2010. London: ippr. 83-100

    • Keep, EJ (2010) “Recent Research on Workplace Learning and Its Implications for National Skills Policies Across the OECD”, In: J Bryson (ed.) Beyond Skill Institutions, Organisations and Human Capability. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 105-126

    • Keep, EJ, Lloyd, C, Payne, J (2010) “Skills Policy and the Displacement of Industrial Relations: The Elephant in the Corner”, In: T Colling, M Terry (eds.) Industrial Relations Theory and Practice. London: Wiley. 398-421

    • Keep, EJ (2009) “Higher education and a skills agenda more broadly conceived”, In: K Withers (ed.) First class? challenges and opportunities for the UK's university sector. London: ippr. 73-84

    • Keep, EJ (2007) “The multiple paradoxes of state power in the English education and training system”, In: L Clarke, C Winch (eds.) Vocational Education International Approaches, Developments and Systems. London: Routledge. 161-178

    • Keep, EJ (2006) “Training and Skills: An Institutional Patchwork”, In: L Dickens, AC Neal (eds.) The Changing Institutional Face of British Employment Relations. Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer Law International. 49-61

    • Keep, EJ (2006) “Who can bring forward the education and training dimension of the National Action Plans?”, In: M Kuhn, R Sultana (eds.) Homo Sapiens Europæus Creating the European Learning Citizen. New York: Peter Lang. 149-165

    • Keep, EJ, Payne, J (2005) “Promoting Workplace Development: Lessons for UK Policy from Nordic Approaches to Job Redesign and the Quality of Working Life”, In: B Harley, J Hyman, P Thompson (eds.) Participation and Democracy at Work, Essays in Honour of Harvey Ramsey. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 146-165

    • Keep, EJ (2005) “‘Skills, Training and the Quest for the Holy Grail of Status and Influence”, In: S Bach (ed.) Managing Human Resources Personnel Management in Transition. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. 211-236

    • Keep, EJ (2004) “After access: researching labour market issues”, In: M Osborne, J Gallagher, B Crossan (eds.) Researching Widening Access to Lifelong Learning Issues and Approaches in International Research. London: Routledge. 115-126

    • Keep, EJ, Payne, J (2004) “‘”I can’t believe it’s not skill”: the changing meaning of skill in the UK context and some implications”, In: G Hayward, S James (eds.) Balancing the Skills Equation Key Issues and Challenges for Policy and Practice. Bristol: Policy Press. 53-76

    • Grugulis, I, Keep, EJ, Warhurst, C (2004) “Introduction”, In: I Grugulis, EJ Keep, C Warhurst (eds.) The Skills That Matter. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 1-18

    • Brown, A, Keep, EJ (2004) “Paradoxes, pitfalls and prospects for a dynamic VET system”, In: WJ Nijhof, W van Esch (eds.) Evaluation of the Dutch VET System. Den Hague: Ellsevere. 255-256

    • Brown, A, Keep, EJ (2003) “Competing perspectives on workplace learning and the learning organisation”, In: B Nyham, M Kelleher, P Cressey, R Poell (eds.) Facing Up to the Learning Organization Challenge: Selected European writings. Thessaloniki: CEDEFOP. 73-91

    • Keep, EJ (2002) “ICT and its Impact on Skills and Creativity – Transforming Catalyst or Dependent Variable?”, In: B Stanford-Smith, E Chiozza, M Edin (eds.) Challenges and Achievements in E-Business and E-Work. Oxford: IOS Press. 140-146

    • Keep, EJ, Rainbird, H (2002) “Towards the Learning Organization?”, In: F Reeve, M Cartwright, R Edwards (eds.) Supporting Lifelong Learning: Organising learning. London: RoutledgeFalmer. 64-90

    • Keep, EJ (2002) “Management Skills for the Third Millenium: management education, Training and Development”, In: P Jeffcutt (ed.) The Foundations of Management Knowledge. London: Routledge.

    • Keep, EJ, Payne, J (2002) “Policy Interventions for a Vibrant Work-Based Route – Or When Policy Hits Reality’s Fan (Again)”, In: K Evans, P Hodkinson, L Unwin (eds.) Working to Learn. London: Kogan Page.

    • Keep, EJ (2001) “The Skills System in 2015”, In: The Future of Learning for Work. London: CIPD Publishing. 25-32

    • Keep, EJ, Rainbird, H (2000) “The Learning Organization”, In: S Bach, K Sisson (eds.) Personnel Management: A Comprehensive Guide to Theory and Practice Third Edition. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. 173-194

    • Huddleston, P, Keep, EJ (1999) “What do employers want from education – a question more easily asked than answered”, In: J Cramphorn (ed.) The Role of Partnerships in Economic Regeneration and Development International Perspectives. Coventry: University of Warwick. 38-49

    • Senker, P, Rainbird, H, Evans, K, Keep, EJ, Maguire, M, Raffe, D, Unwin, L (1999) “Working to Learn: An Holistic Approach to Young People’s Education and Training”, In: P Ainley, H Rainbird (eds.) Apprenticeship - Towards a New Paradigm of Learning. London: Kogan Page. 191-205

    • Keep, EJ, Mayhew, K (1998) “Vocational Education and Training and Economic Performance”, In: T Buxton, P Chapman, J Temple (eds.) Britain’s Economic Performance. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. 367-395

    • Keep, EJ, Mayhew, K (1998) “Training and Development”, In: S Fox (ed.) The European business environment UK. London: Thomson Business Press. 219-241

    • Keep, EJ, Sisson, K, Storey, J (1996) “Managing the employment relationship in higher education - quo vadis?”, In: R Cuthbert (ed.) Working in Higher Education. London: Society for Research in Higher Education/Open University Press. 34-46

    • Keep, EJ, Mayhew, K (1996) “Training for the Unemployed”, In: P Meadows (ed.) Work out - or Work in? Contributions to the debate on the future of work. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation. 140-155

    • Keep, EJ, Mayhew, K (1996) “UK Training Policy - Assumptions and Reality”, In: A Booth, DJ Snower (eds.) Acquiring Skills Market Failures, Their Symptoms and Policy Responses. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 303-334

    • Keep, EJ, Mayhew, K (1995) “The Economic Demand for Higher Education, and Investing in People - Two Aspects of Sustainable Development in British Higher Education”, In: F Coffield (ed.) Higher Education in a Learning Society. Durham: Durham University School of Education. 81-110

    • Keep, EJ, Mayhew, K (1995) Training Policy for Competitiveness - Time for a Fresh Perspective?. London: Policy Studies Institute. 110-145

    • Keep, EJ, Rainbird, H (1995) “Training”, In: PK Edwards (ed.) Industrial Relations in Britain. Oxford: Blackwell. 515-542

    • Keep, EJ (1994) “Vocational Education and Training for the Young”, In: K Sisson (ed.) Personnel Management. 2nd. Oxford: Blackwell. 299-333

    • Keep, EJ, Mayhew, K (1994) “The Changing Structure of Training Provision”, In: T Buxton, P Chapman, P Temple (eds.) Britain's Economic Performance. London: Routledge.

    • Keep, EJ, Mayhew, K (1993) “Training and the Labour Market”, In: C Trinder, P Jackson (eds.) The Public Services Yearbook 1993. London: Chapman and Hall. 169-190

    • Keep, EJ (1993) “Missing: Presumed Skilled - Training Policy in the UK”, In: R Edwards, S Sieminski, D Zeldin (eds.) Adult Learners, Education, and Training A Reader. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.

    • Keep, EJ (1992) “Schools in the Marketplace? Some Problems with Private Sector Models”, In: G Wallace (ed.) Local Management of Schools Research and Experience. BERA Dialogues 6. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. 102-118

    • Keep, EJ (1991) “The Grass Looked Greener - Some Thoughts on the Influence of Comparative Vocational Training Research on the UK Policy Debate”, In: P Ryan (ed.) International Comparisons of Vocational Education and Training for Intermediate Skills. London: Falmer.

    • Keep, EJ (1990) “Training for the Low Paid”, In: A Bowen, K Mayhew (eds.) Improving Incentives for the Low-Paid. London: Macmillan/NEDO. 139-180

    • Keep, EJ (1989) “Corporate Training Strategies - The Vital Component?”, In: J Storey (ed.) New perspectives on human resource management. London: Routledge. 109-125

    • Keep, EJ (1989) “A Training Scandal”, In: Personnel Management in Britain. Wiley-Blackwell. 177-202

    • Keep, EJ, Mayhew, K “Education and Training”, In: C Trinder, P Jackson (eds.) Public Services Yearbook 1994. London: Chapman and Hall. 237-254

  • Conference papers

    • James Relly, SF, Keep, E Are bad jobs inevitable? Incentives to learn at the bottom end of the labour market. (New Jersy)

  • Journal articles

    • Keep, E (2015) “Governance in English VET: On the functioning of a fractured ‘system’”, Research in Comparative and International Education. 10(4) 464-475.

    • Keep, E (2015) “Thinking about where to go and what next to do in the reform of vocational qualifications”, Journal of Education and Work. 28(2) 117-125.

    • Keep, E, Mayhew, K (2014) “Inequality - 'wicked problems', labour market outcomes and the search for silver bullets”, OXFORD REVIEW OF EDUCATION. 40(6) 764-781.

    • Keep, E (2012) “Where next for vocational education?”, British Journal of Sociology of Education. 33(2) 315-322.

    • Keep, E, James, S (2012) “A Bermuda triangle of policy? 'Bad jobs', skills policy and incentives to learn at the bottom end of the labour market”, JOURNAL OF EDUCATION POLICY. 27(2) 211-230.

    • Keep, E (2012) “Education and industry: taking two steps back and reflecting”, Journal of Education and Work. 25(4) 357-379.

    • Keep, E, Mayhew, K (2010) “Moving beyond skills as a social and economic panacea”, WORK EMPLOYMENT AND SOCIETY. 24(3) 565-577.

    • Keep, E, Mayhew, K, Payne, J (2006) “From skills revolution to productivity miracle - Not as easy as it sounds?”, OXFORD REVIEW OF ECONOMIC POLICY. 22(4) 539-559.

    • Keep, E (2006) “State control of the English education and training system—playing with the biggest train set in the world”, Journal of Vocational Education & Training. 58(1) 47-64.

    • Keep, E (2005) “Reflections on the curious absence of employers, labour market incentives and labour market regulation in English 14–19 policy: first signs of a change in direction?”, Journal of Education Policy. 20(5) 533-553.

    • Gleeson *, D, Keep, E (2004) “Voice without accountability: the changing relationship between employers, the state and education in England”, Oxford Review of Education. 30(1) 37-63.

    • Keep, E, Mayhew, K (2004) “The economic and distributional implications of current policies on higher education”, OXFORD REVIEW OF ECONOMIC POLICY. 20(2) 298-314.

    • Payne, J, Keep, E (2003) “Re-visiting the Nordic approaches to work re-organization and job redesign: lessons for UK skills policy”, Policy Studies. 24(4) 205-225.

    • Keep, E (2002) “The English Vocational Education and Training Policy Debate--Fragile 'Technologies' or Opening the 'Black Box': Two competing visions of where we go next”, Journal of Education and Work. 15(4) 457-479.

    • Casey, B, Keep, E, Mayhew, K (1999) “Flexibility, quality and competitiveness”, National Institute Economic Review. 168 70-81.

    • Keep, E, Mayhew, K (1999) “The assessment: Knowledge, skills, and competitiveness”, OXFORD REVIEW OF ECONOMIC POLICY. 15(1) 1-15.

    • Keep, E (1999) “UK's VET Policy and the ‘Third Way’: following a high skills trajectory or running up a dead end street?”, Journal of Education and Work. 12(3) 323-346.

    • Keep, E (1997) “’There's no such thing as society . . .’: some problems with an individual approach to creating a Learning Society”, Journal of Education Policy. 12(6) 457-471.

    • Keep, E, Mayhew, K (1996) “Towards a learning society — Definition and measurement”, Policy Studies. 17(3) 215-232.

    • Keep, E, Mayhew, K (1996) “Economic Demand for Higher Education?A Sound Foundation for Further Expansion?”, Higher Education Quarterly. 50(2) 89-109.

    • KEEP, E, SISSON, K (1992) “OWNING THE PROBLEM: PERSONNEL ISSUES IN HIGHER EDUCATION POLICY-MAKING IN THE 1990s”, Oxford Review of Economic Policy. 8(2) 67-78.

    • KEEP, E, MAYHEW, EN (1988) “THE ASSESSMENT: EDUCATION, TRAINING AND ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE”, Oxford Review of Economic Policy. 4(3) 1-1.

    • Keep, EJ, Mayhew, K “Was Ratner Right? Product Market and Competitive Strategies and Their Links with Skills and Knowledge”, EPI Economic Report. 12(3) 1-14.

    • Keep, EJ, Mayhew, K “Towards the knowledge-driven economy”, Renewal. 7(4) 50-59.

    • Senker, P, Rainbird, H, Evans, K, Hodkinson, P, Keep, EJ, Maguire, M, Raffe, D, Unwin, L “Working to learn: an holistic approach to young people’s education and training”, European Journal of Vocational Training. (20) 37-46.

    • Keep, EJ “Schools in the Marketplace - Some Problems with Private Sector Models”, British Journal of Education and Work. 5(2) 43-56.

    • Keep, EJ “La politica, sobre el desempieo juvenil en al Reino Unido”, Economia y Sociologia del Trabajo. 1(1/2) 127-136.

    • Ferner, A, Keep, EJ, Waddington, J “Industrial restructuring and EU-wide social measures: broader lessons of the ECSC experience”, Journal of European Public Policy. 4(1) 56-72.

  • Reports

    • Holmes, C, Mayhew, K, Keep, EJ (2012) “Ten Big Questions for Higher Education”, In: SKOPE Issues Paper. Cardiff: Cardiff University, SKOPE.

    • Keep, EJ (2012) “Reforming Vocational Qualifications: Some Problems Ahead?”, In: SKOPE Issues Paper. Cardiff: Cardiff University, SKOPE.

    • Keep, EJ (2012) “Skill ecosystems – lessons for England?”, In: paper written for David Willetts, minister for higher education in DBIS (mimeo). Cardiff: Cardiff University: SKOPE.

    • Keep, EJ (2012) “Youth Transitions, the Labour Market and Entry into Employment: Some Reflections and Questions”, In: SKOPE Research Paper. Cardiff: Cardiff University, SKOPE.

    • Keep, EJ (2012) “Apprenticeships – some problems and issues”, In: submission of evidence to the House of Commons Select Committee on Business, Innovation and Skills inquiry into apprenticeships.

    • Keep, EJ (2012) “Employer Involvement and Leadership in Skills Policy”, In: paper written for the Skills and FE Branch of DBIS. London: UKCES.

    • Keep, EJ, Mayhew, K (2011) “Future Directions for Skills Policy”, In: SKOPE submission to the Labour Party Policy Review on skills (mimeo). Universities of Oxford and Cardiff, SKOPE.

    • Payne, J, Keep, EJ (2011) “One Step Forward, Two Steps Back? Skills Policy in England under the Coalition Government”, In: SKOPE Research Paper. Cardiff: Cardiff University, SKOPE.

    • Keep, EJ, James, S (2010) “Recruitment and selection – A review of extant research and some thoughts on its implications for education and training policy”, In: SKOPE Research Paper. Cardiff: Cardiff University, SKOPE.

    • Keep, EJ (2010) “The challenges and dilemmas of public skills policy and investment”, In: EEDA Foresight: Skills. Cambridge: East of England Development Agency.

    • James Relly, SF, Keep, E (2010) “What Incentives to Learn at the Bottom End of the Labour Market?”, In: SKOPE Research Paper. Cardiff: Cardiff University, SKOPE.

    • James Relly, SF, Keep, E (2010) “Recruitment and Selection – The Great Neglected Topic”, In: SKOPE Research Paper. Cardiff: SKOPE.

    • Keep, EJ (2009) “The limits of the possible: shaping the learning and skills landscape through a shared policy narrative”, In: SKOPE Research Paper. Cardiff: Cardiff University, SKOPE.

    • Oancea, AE, Hayward, G, Hodgson, A, Johnson, J, Keep, E, Pring, R, Rees, G, Spours, K, Wilde, S (2006) The Nuffield Review of 14-19 Education & Training: annual report 2005-2006.

    • Oancea, AE, Hayward, G, Hodgson, A, Johnson, J, Keep, E, Pring, R, Spours, K, Wilde, S, Wright, S (2005) The Nuffield Review of 14-19 Education & Training: annual report 2004-2005.

    • Oancea, AE, Hayward, G, Hodgson, A, Johnson, J, Keep, E, Pring, R, Spours, K, Wright, S (2004) Nuffield Review of 14-19 Education & Training: annual report 2003-2004.

    • Keep, EJ, Westwood, A (2003) Can the UK Learn… Manage?. London: SKOPE/Work Foundation.

    • Keep, EJ (2000) Upskilling Scotland – A New Horizon Report. Edinburgh: Centre for Scottish Public Policy.

    • Brown, A, Keep, EJ (1999) Review of Vocational Education and Training Research in the United Kingdom. Luxembourg: European Commission.

    • Keep, EJ, Sisson, K, Finegold, D, Miliband, D, Robinson, D, Ziman, J (1992) Higher Education: Expansion and Reform. London: Institute of Public Policy Research.

    • Keep, EJ (1992) “The Need for a Revised Management System for the Teaching Profession”, In: National Commission on Education Briefing No 2. London: NCE.

    • Keep, EJ, Finegold, D, Miliband, D, Raffe, D, Spours, K, Young, M (1990) “A British 'Baccalaureate' - Ending the Division Between Education and Training”, In: Education and Training Paper No 1. London: Institute of Public Policy Research.

  • Other

    • Keep, EJ (2013) “Skills Policy in England – a case of the Walking Dead? TJ Opinion Piece”, Training Journal. (May) 12-13.

    • Keep, EJ (2012) “Communicating the reforms will be a huge challenge”, Adults Learning Extra. (January) 7-7.

    • Keep, EJ (2012) “Danger review will be left on the shelf”, Adults Learning. 24(2) 36-36.

    • Keep, EJ (2012) “The reform of vocational qualifications should loom large”, Adults Learning. 24(1) 12-12.

    • Keep, EJ (2011) “Skills utilisation”, Holyrood Magazine, skills supplement. (September) 7-8.

    • Keep, EJ (2010) “Where now for adult learning?”, Adults Learning. 21(10) 16-16.

    • Keep, EJ (2009) “The Skills Story”, Workplace – Learning and Skills Bulletin. (7) 12-12.

    • Keep, EJ (2009) “Understanding Incentives Better”, Workplace Learning and Skills Bulletin. (7) 15-16.

    • Keep, EJ (2007) “Live and learn is a better strategy”, Talisman. (57) 14-14.

    • Keep, EJ (2007) “Balls no one is likely to catch”, Parliamentary Brief. 11(7) 29-30.

    • Keep, EJ (2007) “Unless we link skills policies to economic development, much effort will be wasted”, Adults learning. 19(1) 15-15.

    • Keep, EJ (2007) “Skills equals success? If only it were that simple”, Parliamentary Brief. 11(1) 9-9.

    • Keep, EJ (2007) “Both Leitch and Gordon Brown are over-optimistic about what skills and education alone can deliver”, Adults learning. 18(5) 15-15.

    • Keep, EJ (2006) “Adult learning in the balance”, Adults Learning. NIACE. 18(1) 8-8.

    • Keep, EJ (2006) “Live and Learn, Viewpoint”, People Management. (27 July) 7-7.

    • Keep, EJ (2006) “Market failure and public policy on training: some reasons for caution”, Development and Learning in Organizations. 20(6) 7-9.

    • Keep, EJ (2005) “New Labour”, New Humanist. (July/August) 14-15.

    • Keep, EJ (2004) “Trapped on the low road”, Adult Learning. 15(6) 16-17.

    • Keep, EJ, Mayhew, K (1994) “Skills Cannot Promise a Job”, Parliamentary Brief. 3(2) 17-20.

    • Keep, EJ, Mayhew, K (1994) “Skilling the Jobless: Time for a New Deal”, Employment Policy Institute Economic Report. 8(1) 1-5.

    • Keep, EJ (1988) “Ministers Prepare to Hand Training Over to Employers”, BIM Employment Bulletin and IR Digest. (3) 1-3.

    • Keep, EJ (1986) “Can Britain Build a Coherent Vocational Training System?”, Personnel Management. 28-31.

    • Keep, EJ “Are employers failing young people?”, Business in Wales. (Feb/March) 30-30.

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