Department of Education

Jo-Anne Baird

Director of the Department & Professor of Educational Assessment

College Affiliation: St Anne's College

Jo-Anne Baird is Director of the department.

Before coming to Oxford, Jo-Anne held academic posts at the Institute of Education, University of London and the University of Bristol.  Jo-Anne previously held the position of Head of Research at the Assessment and Qualifications Alliance, where she managed the research programme and was responsible for the standard-setting systems for public examinations. Her first degree and doctorate were in psychology and she has an MBA.  Her current research projects include Setting and Maintaining Standards in national examinations, Examination reform: the impact of modular and linear examinations at GCSE, Assessment for Learning in Africa (AFLA), intelligent accountability and the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study England national centre.

Her research interests are in educational assessment, including system-wide structures and processes, examination standards, marking and assessment design.  Jo-Anne conducts a lot of work with government and industry partners, including acting as the Standing Adviser to the House of Commons Education Select Committee, a member of Ofqual’s Standing Advisory Group and membership of the Welsh Government’s Curriculum and Assessment Group.  She is a member of the Editorial Board of the Oxford Review of Education journal and the International Advisory Board of Assessment in Education: principles, policy & practice.  She has been a Visiting Professor at the universities of Bergen, Queen’s (Belfast) and Umea.  From 2013 to 2015 she was President of the Association for Educational Assessment – Europe.

Funded Research Projects:

  • The impact of linear and modular examinations at GCSE (Ofqual)

  • Predictability of the Irish Leaving Certificate (State Examinations Commission, Ireland)

  • A state of the field review: assessment and learning (Norwegian Research Council Knowledge Centre for Education)

  • PIRLS National Centre for England; Department for Education

Doctoral Applications

Jo-Anne welcomes doctoral applications from students interested in the following research areas:

  • Relationships between assessment and learning
  • Systemic effects in assessment
  • Tests worth teaching to
  • Assessment policy
  • Rater effects

Publications:

  • Featured Publications

    • Baird, J-A, Elliott, V (2018) “Metrics in educationcontrol and corruption”, OXFORD REVIEW OF EDUCATION.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/03054985.2018.1504858

    • Baird, JA, Meadows, M, Leckie, G, Caro, D (2017) “Rater accuracy and training group effects in Expert- and Supervisor-based monitoring systems”, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2015.1108283

    • Baird, J, Andrich, D, Hopfenbeck, TN, Stobart, G (2017) “Assessment and learning: fields apart?”, Assessment in Education: principles, policy & practice. Taylor & Francis (Routledge): SSH Titles.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2017.1319337

    • Elliott, VF, Baird, J-A, Hopfenbeck, TN, Ingram, J, Thompson, I, Usher, N, Zantout, M, Richardson, J, Coleman, R (2016) A marked improvement? A review of the evidence on written marking. Education Endowment Foundation.

    • Baird, JA, Black, P (2013) “The reliability of public examinations”, Research Papers in Education.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/02671522.2012.754232

  • Books

    • Newton, P, Baird, J, Goldstein, H, Patrick, H, Tymms, P (2007) Comparability of UK public examinations. QCA book publication.

  • Book chapters

    • Baird, J, Hopfenbeck, TN (2016) “Curriculum in the Twenty-First Century and the Future of Examinations”, In: D Wyse, L Hayward, J Pandya (eds.) The SAGE Handbook of Curriculum, Pedagogy and Assessment. London: SAGE. 821-837

    • Baird, J (2010) “Country case study – England”, In: B Vlaardingerbroek, N Taylor (eds.) Secondary School External Examination Regimes: A Global Overview of a Robust Educational Phenomenon. New York: Cambria Press.

  • Journal articles

    • Hopfenbeck, TN, Lenkeit, J, El Masri, Y, Cantrell, K, Ryan, J, Baird, J-A (2018) “Lessons Learned from PISA: A Systematic Review of Peer-Reviewed Articles on the Programme for International Student Assessment”, SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH. 62(3) 333-353.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2016.1258726

    • Baird, J-A, Elliott, V (2018) “Metrics in educationcontrol and corruption”, OXFORD REVIEW OF EDUCATION. 44(5) 533-544.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/03054985.2018.1504858

    • Baird, J, Andrich, D, Hopfenbeck, TN, Stobart, G (2017) “Assessment and learning: fields apart?”, Assessment in Education: principles, policy & practice.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2017.1319337

    • Baird, J-A, Andrich, D, Hopfenbeck, TN, Stobart, G (2017) “Metrology of education”, ASSESSMENT IN EDUCATION-PRINCIPLES POLICY & PRACTICE. 24(3) 463-470.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2017.1337628

    • El Masri, YH, Ferrara, S, Foltz, PW, Baird, JA (2017) “Predicting item difficulty of science national curriculum tests: the case of key stage 2 assessments”, Curriculum Journal. 28(1) 59-82.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/09585176.2016.1232201

    • Elwood, J, Hopfenbeck, T, Baird, J-A (2017) “Predictability in high-stakes examinations: students' perspectives on a perennial assessment dilemma”, RESEARCH PAPERS IN EDUCATION. 32(1) 1-17.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/02671522.2015.1086015

    • Baird, JA, Meadows, M, Leckie, G, Caro, D (2017) “Rater accuracy and training group effects in Expert- and Supervisor-based monitoring systems”, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice. 24(1) 44-59.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2015.1108283

    • El Masri, YH, Baird, JA, Graesser, A (2016) “Language effects in international testing: the case of PISA 2006 science items”, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice. 23(4) 427-455.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2016.1218323

    • Baird, J-A, Caro, DH, Hopfenbeck, TN (2016) “Student perceptions of predictability of examination requirements and relationship with outcomes in high-stakes tests in Ireland”, IRISH EDUCATIONAL STUDIES. 35(4) 361-379.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/03323315.2016.1227719

    • Baird, JA, Gray, L (2016) “The meaning of curriculum-related examination standards in Scotland and England: a home–international comparison”, Oxford Review of Education. 42(3) 266-284.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/03054985.2016.1184866

    • Baird, J-A, Johnson, S, Hopfenbeck, TN, Isaacs, T, Sprague, T, Stobart, G, Yu, G (2016) “On the supranational spell of PISA in policy”, EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH. 58(2) 121-138.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/00131881.2016.1165410

    • Lenkeit, J, Chan, J, Hopfenbeck, TN, Baird, J-A (2015) “A review of the representation of PIRLS related research in scientific journals”, EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH REVIEW. 16 102-115.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2015.10.002

    • Baird, JA (2014) “Assessment and attitude”, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice. 21(2) 129-132.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2014.904076

    • Baird, JA (2014) “Teachers’ views on assessment practices”, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice. 21(4) 361-364.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2014.960689

    • Rose, J, Baird, JA (2013) “Aspirations and an austerity state: young people's hopes and goals for the future”, London Review of Education. 11(2) 157-173.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/14748460.2013.799811

    • Baird, JA (2013) “Judging students' performances”, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice. 20(3) 247-249.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2013.812396

    • Baird, JA (2013) “The currency of assessments”, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice. 20(2) 147-149.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2013.787782

    • Baird, JA, Black, P (2013) “The reliability of public examinations”, Research Papers in Education. 28(1) 1-4.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/02671522.2012.754232

    • Baird, JA, Black, P (2013) “Test theories, educational priorities and reliability of public examinations in England”, Research Papers in Education. 28(1) 5-21.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/02671522.2012.754224

    • Baird, J-A, Black, P (2013) “The reliability of public examinations”, Research Papers in Education.

    • Simpson, L, Baird, JA (2013) “Perceptions of trust in public examinations”, Oxford Review of Education. 39(1) 17-35.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/03054985.2012.760264

    • Elwood, J, Baird, JA (2013) “Students: researching voice, aspirations and perspectives in the context of educational policy change in the 14-19 phase”, London Review of Education. 11(2) 91-96.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/14748460.2013.799806

    • Baird, JA (2012) “Science and misfits”, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice. 19(2) 141-145.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2012.668003

    • Baird, JA, Rose, J, McWhirter, A (2012) “So tell me what you want: A comparison of FE college and other post-16 students' aspirations”, Research in Post-Compulsory Education. 17(3) 293-310.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/13596748.2012.700095

    • Baird, JA (2012) “Do we need marking at all?”, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice. 19(3) 277-279.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2012.692513

    • Daly, AL, Baird, JA, Chamberlain, S, Meadows, M (2012) “Assessment reform: Students' and teachers' responses to the introduction of stretch and challenge at A-level”, Curriculum Journal. 23(2) 139-155.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/09585176.2012.678683

    • Baird, JA (2011) “Does the learning happen inside the black box?”, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice. 18(4) 343-345.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2011.614857

    • Leckie, G, Baird, JA (2011) “Rater effects on essay scoring: A multilevel analysis of severity drift, central tendency, and rater experience”, Journal of Educational Measurement. 48(4) 399-418.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-3984.2011.00152.x

    • Baird, JA (2011) “Why do people appeal higher education grades and what can it tell us about the meaning of standards?”, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice. 18(1) 1-4.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2011.542036

    • Baird, JA (2010) “Beliefs and practice in teacher assessment”, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice. 17(1) 1-5.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/09695940903562682

    • Baird, JA (2010) “Construct-irrelevant variance sometimes has consequential validity”, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice. 17(4) 339-343.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2010.516207

    • Baird, JA (2010) “Examinations versus teacher assessments”, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice. 17(3) 251-254.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2010.496216

    • Baird, JA (2010) “What constitutes legitimate causal linking?”, Measurement. 8(4) 151-153.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/15366361003748219

    • Baird, JA (2010) “The theory-practice gap”, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice. 17(2) 113-116.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/09695941003732357

    • Baird, JA, Lee-Kelley, L (2009) “The dearth of managerialism in implementation of national examinations policy”, Journal of Education Policy. 24(1) 55-81.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/02680930802382938

    • Baird, JA (2009) “Macro and micro influences on assessment practice”, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice. 16(2) 127-129.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/09695940903075883

    • Baird, JA, Coxell, A (2009) “Policy, latent error and systemic examination failures”, Cadmo. 17(2) 105-122.

    • Royal-Dawson, L, Baird, JA (2009) “Is teaching experience necessary for reliable scoring of extended english questions?”, Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice. 28(2) 2-8.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-3992.2009.00142.x

    • Newton, PE, Stobart, G, Goldstein, H, Goldstein, H, Newton, PE, Harlen, W, Baird, J, Harlen, W, Winter, J, Newton, PE (2008) “Return of the bible”, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice. 15(3) 307-320.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/09695940802426427

    • Baird, JA, Greatorex, J, Bell, JF (2004) “What makes marking reliable? Experiments with UK examinations”, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice. 11(3) 331-348.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/0969594042000304627

    • Richardson, M, Baird, JA, Ridgway, J, Ripley, M, Shorrocks-Taylor, D, Swan, M (2002) “Challenging minds? Students' perceptions of computer-based World Class Tests of problem solving”, Computers in Human Behavior. 18(6) 633-649.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/S0747-5632(02)00021-3

    • Baird, JA, Scharaschkin, A (2002) “Is the whole worth more than the sum of the parts? Studies of examiners' grading of individual papers and candidates' whole A-level examination performances”, Educational Studies. 28(2) 143-162.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/03055690220124588

    • Baird, JA, Cresswell, M, Newton, P (2000) “Would the real gold standard please step forward?”, Research Papers in Education. 15(2) 213-226.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/026715200402506

    • Scharaschkin, A, Baird, JA (2000) “The effects of consistency of performance on A level examiners' judgements of standards”, British Educational Research Journal. 26(3) 343-356.

    • Baird, JA (1998) “What's in a name? Experiments with blind marking in A-level examinations”, Educational Research. 40(2) 191-202.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/0013188980400207

    • Baird, J, Coxell, A “Policy, Latent Error and Systemic Examination Failures”, CADMO. XVII((2)) 105-122.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.3280/CAD2009-002011

    • BAIRD, J-A, Deem, R “The English Teaching Excellence (and Student Outcomes) Framework: intelligent accountability in higher education?”, Journal of Educational Change.

  • Internet publication

    • Baird, J (2014) Tiered GCSE papers that cap ambition should be abolished. The Conversation.

  • Reports

    • BAIRD, J-A, Caro, D, ELLIOTT, V, EL MASRI, Y, INGRAM, J, RANDHAWA, A, Isaacs, T, Stobart, G, Meadows, M, Morin, C, Pinot de Moira, A, Taylor, R (2019) Examination reform: Impact of linear and modular examinations at GCSE.

    • Elliott, VF, Baird, J-A, Hopfenbeck, TN, Ingram, J, Thompson, I, Usher, N, Zantout, M, Richardson, J, Coleman, R (2016) A marked improvement? A review of the evidence on written marking. Education Endowment Foundation.

    • Elwood, J, Barrance, R, Hopfenbeck, TN, Baird, J, Ryan, J, Paget, C, Brown, C, O’Boyle, A (2015) Predictability in the Irish Leaving Certificate Examination Working Paper 4: Teachers’ and Students’ Perspectives. Oxford and Belfast: University of Oxford and Queen's University, Belfast.

    • Baird, J, Hopfenbeck, TN, Elwood, J, Caro, D, Ahmed, A (2015) Predictability in the Irish Leaving Certificate. Oxford and Belfast: Oxford University and Queen's University, Belfast.

    • Baird, J, Hopfenbeck, TN, Ahmed, A, Elwood, J, Paget, C, Usher, N (2015) Predictability in the Irish Leaving Certificate Examination Working Paper 1: Review of the Literature. Oxford and Belfast: Oxford University and Queen's University Belfast.

    • Ahmed, A, Baird, J (2015) Predictability in the Irish Leaving Certificate Examination Working Paper 2: Examination Materials Research. Oxford and Belfast: Oxford University and Queen's University Belfast.

    • Baird, J, Hopfenbeck, T, Newton, P, Stobart, G, Steen-Utheim, A (2014) State of the field review: Assessment and Learning..

    • Caro, DH, Baird, J-A (2013) Assessing the value of multilevel models for the study of marker reliability. Oxford: Oxford University Centre for Educational Assessment.

    • Baird, J-A, Ahmed, A, Hopfenbeck, T, Brown, C, Elliott, V (2013) Research evidence relating to proposals for reform of the GCSE. Oxford: Oxford University Centre for Educational Assessment.

    • Baird, JA, Hayes, M, Johnson, R, Johnson, S, Lamprianou, I (2013) Marker effects and examination reliability: A comparative exploration from the perspectives of generalizability theory, Rasch modelling and multilevel modelling.

    • Baird, J, Pillinger, R, Steele, F (2012) “Use of the LEMMA Online Learning Materials”, In: Report prepared for the LEMMA (Learning Environment for Multilevel Modelling and Applications) node, University of Bristol.

    • Baird, J, Isaacs, T, Johnson, S, Stobart, G, Yu, G, Sprague, T, Daugherty, R (2011) “Policy Effects of PISA”, In: Report commissioned by Pearson UK.

    • Baird, J, Elwood, J, Duffy, G, Feiler, A, O'Boyle, A, Rose, J, Stobart, G, McWhirter, A (2011) 14-19 Centre Research Study: Educational reforms in schools and colleges in England. London: QCDA.

    • Baird, J, Beguin, A, Black, P, Pollitt, A, Stanley, G (2011) “The Reliability Programme: Final Report of the Technical Advisory Group”, In: Office of the Qualifications and Examinations Regulator Report. Coventry:

    • Baird, J, Daly, A, Tremain, K, Meadows, M (2009) “Stretch and challenge in A-level examinations: Teachers’ views of the new assessments”, In: Qualifications and Curriculum Authority Report.

    • Baird, J, Chamberlain, S, Meadows, M, Royal-Dawson, L, Taylor, R (2009) “Students’ views of stretch and challenge in A-level examinations”, In: Qualifications and Curriculum Authority Report.

    • Royal-Dawson, L, Leckie, G, Baird, J (2009) An Operational Report On Item Statistics For Standardisation & Benchmarking Data – 2008 National Curriculum Tests, for National Assessment Agency.

    • Baird, J, Oates, T, Patrick, H, Stobart, G, Whetton, C, Blaker, P, Sandhu, K, Watson, C, Wood, A (2008) “Single Level Tests. Interim Technical Report: December 2007 Test Session”, In: National Assessment Agency Report.

    • Baird, J, Stobart, G (2008) “Conceptualising the Single Level Tests”, In: National Assessment Agency Report.

    • Politt, A, Ahmed, A, Baird, J, Tognolini, J, Davidson, M (2008) Improving the quality of GCSE assessment. Qualifications and Curriculum Authority.

    • Baird, J (2008) “Independent Adviser’s Report 2008. A report on the statutory assessment level setting process for the National Assessment Agency”, In: National Assessment Agency Report.

    • Leckie, G, Royal-Dawson, L, Baird, J (2008) “Changes in the severity of marking as a function of number of scripts marked: Key Stage 3 English Writing Summer 2008 quality assurance data”, In: National Assessment Agency Report.

    • Newton, PE, Goldstein, H, Tymms, P, Baird, J (2007) “What has England learned from decades of monitoring the comparability of examination standards?”, In: Qualifications and Curriculum Authority Report.

    • McGrane, J, Stiff, J, Lenkeit, J, Hopfenbeck, TN, Baird, J Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS): National Report for England.

  • Other

    • Newton, PE, Baird, JA (2016) “The great validity debate”, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice. 23(2) 173-177.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2016.1172871

    • Baird, JA (2014) “Editorial”, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice. 21(1) 1-3.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2014.881152

    • Baird, JA (2012) “Editorial”, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice. 19(4) 389-391.
      DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2012.729801

    • Baird, J, Elwood, J, Isaacs, T (2012) Written evidence submitted to the Education Select Committee’s Inquiry into the administration of examinations for 15-19 year olds in England.

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