Ernesto Macaro is Emeritus Professor of Applied Linguistics and a Senior Research Fellow at Worcester College, University of Oxford.

Ernesto was Director of the Department of Education from 2013 to 2016.

Before becoming a teacher educator and researcher Ernesto was a language teacher in secondary schools in the UK for 16 years during which time he obtained an MA in Applied Linguistics at the University of Warwick. During this time he was asked by Warwickshire Education Authority to design and organise professional development courses for language teachers. This led to an interest in teacher education and he obtained a post at the University of York and subsequently at the University of Reading. It was at the latter that he obtained a PhD whilst teaching on that institution’s PGCE course.

Ernesto joined the Department of Education at Oxford in 1999 and soon after introduced the area of Applied Linguistics by designing the Masters in Applied Linguistics and Second Language Acquisition. A further, largely online course, aimed at practising language teachers followed a few years Later (Msc. in Applied Linguistics For Language Teaching).

Ernesto’s current research focuses on second language learning strategies and on the interaction between teachers and learners in second language classrooms and in those where English is the medium of instruction (EMI). He has published widely in these areas and is now considered one of the leading experts on EMI. His 2018 book published by Oxford University Press is considered a landmark publication in the field.

Ernesto continues to be highly research active and is frequently called upon to give keynotes, plenary lectures and workshops in many parts of the world as well as providing consultancies on language policy. The following are a selection of research projects that he has recently been involved in or are on-going:


The research investigated the extent to which it is feasible and beneficial for English language specialists in Turkish universities to collaborate with academic subject specialists teaching through the medium of English in the preparation and delivery of content lessons or lectures.
Funding body: part funded by Oxford University Press


This research involved EMI content teachers audio-recording their classes. These were subsequently analysed by a language specialist according to pre-defined language features. The aim was to encourage the content teachers to reflect on their teaching (particularly on their interaction with students) and subsequently modify their pedagogy.


The study sought to establish the feasibility of certifying the teaching competence of teachers teaching academic subjects through the medium of English in non-anglophone contexts. Specifically, it investigated teacher attitudes towards the kinds of competencies needed and whether it was possible and/or beneficial for the certification to be awarded at an institutional, national, or international level.
Funding Body: Fell Fund (University of Oxford)


The research investigated the challenges faced by students transitioning from an upper secondary school CLIL classroom to EMI in Universities. Specifically, it measured the lexical knowledge needed to adequately understand lectures in the L2 (English) and the strategies that students might use to compensate for lexical deficiencies.
Funding Body: The British Council



  • Macaro, E. (2024). English-medium instruction (pp. 21-34). Taylor & Francis.

  • Macaro, E., & Woore, R. (2021). Debates in Second Language Education. Routledge.

  • Macaro, E., Graham, S., & Woore, R. (2016). Improving Foreign Language Teaching, Towards a research-based curriculum and pedagogy. Taylor & Francis.

  • Macaro, E. (2014). Debates in modern languages education (P. Driscoll, E. Macaro, & A. Swarbrick, Eds.; pp. 1-321). Routledge.

  • Macaro, E. (2010). Continuum Companion to Second Language Acquisition. Bloomsbury Publishing.

  • Cohen, A., & Macaro, E. (2007). Language Learner strategies: Thirty  years of research and practice (A. Cohen & E. Macaro, Eds.). Oxford University Press.

  • Macaro, E. (2005). Teaching and Learning a Second Language: A Guide to Recent Research and its Applications (pp. 1-284).

  • Macaro, E. (2001). Learning strategies in second and foreign language classrooms. Continuum.

  • Lahaie, U., & Macaro, E. (2000). Target Language, Collaborative Learning, and Autonomy (p. 194). JSTOR.

  • Convery, A., Evans, M., Green, S., Macaro, E., & Mellor, J. (1997). Pupils’ Perceptions of Europe. Cassell.

  • Book chapters
  • Macaro, E. (2021). Learner strategies in an English Medium Instruction context. In Multilingual Perspectives from Europe and Beyond on Language Policy and Practice (pp. 63-82). Taylor & Francis.

  • Macaro, E. (2020). Systematic reviews in applied linguistics. In The Routledge Handbook of Research Methods in Applied Linguistics (pp. 230-239). Taylor & Francis.

  • Macaro, E. (2019). Language Learner Strategies and Individual Diff erences. In Learning Strategy Instruction in the Language Classroom: Issues and Implementation (pp. 92-104).

  • Murphy, V., & Macaro, E. (2016). It isn’t child’s play: conducting research with children as participants. In J. McKinley & H. Rose (Eds.), Doing Research in Applied Linguistics: Realities, dilemmas, and solutions (pp. 103-113). Routledge.

  • Driscoll, P., Macaro, E., & Swarbrick, A. (2014). Introduction (pp. 1-5).

  • Macaro, E. (2014). Reframing task performance The relationship between tasks, strategic behaviour, and linguistic knowledge in writing. In Task-Based Language Teaching (pp. 53-77).

  • Macaro, E. (2013). Overview: Where Should We Be Going With Classroom Codeswitching Research?. In Codeswitching in University English-Medium Classes (pp. 10-23). Channel View Publications.

  • Macaro, E. (2013). Overview: Where should we be going with classroom codeswitching research?. In R. Barnard & J. McLellan (Eds.), Codeswitching in University English-Medium Classes Asian Perspectives. Multilingual Matters.

  • Macaro, E., Vanderplank, R., & Murphy, V. (2010). A compendium of key concepts in second language acquisition. In Continuum Companion to Second Language Acquisition (pp. 29-106). Bloomsbury Publishing.

  • Macaro, E. (2010). The relationship between strategic behaviour and language learning success. In E. Macaro (Ed.), Continuum Companion to Second Language Acquisition (pp. 268-299). Bloomsbury Publishing.

  • Cohen, D., & Macaro, E. (2010). Research methods in second language acquisition. In E. Macaro (Ed.), Continuum Companion to Second Language Acquisition (pp. 107-136). Bloomsbury Publishing.

  • Macaro, E. (2010). Second language acquisition: the landscape, the scholarship and the reader. In E. Macaro (Ed.), Continuum Companion to Second Language Acquisition. Bloomsbury Publishing.

  • Macaro, E. (2009). Teacher use of codeswitching in the second language classroom. In M. Turnbull & J. Dailey-O’Cain (Eds.), First Language Use in Second and Foreign Language Learning. Multilingual Matters.

  • Macaro, E. (2009). Teacher Codeswitching in L2 classrooms: exploring ‘optimal use’. In T. Yoshida, H. Imai, Y. Nakata, & A. Tajino (Eds.), Researching Language Teaching and Learning An Integration of Practice and Theory. Peter Lang.

  • Macaro, E. (2009). Teacher use of codeswitching in the second language classroom: Exploring ‘optimal’ use. In First Language Use in Second and Foreign Language Learning (pp. 35-49).

  • Macaro, E. (2009). Developments in Language Learner Strategies. In Contemporary Applied Linguistics: Language Teaching and Learning: Volume 1 (pp. 1-36).

  • Macaro, E. (2008). The shifting dimensions of language learner autonomy (pp. 47-62).

  • Macaro, E., & Grenfell, M. (2007). Language learner strategies: claims and critiques. In E. Macaro & A. Cohen (Eds.), Language Learner strategies: 30 years of research and practice (pp. 9-28). Oxford University Press.

  • Macaro, E., Graham, S., & Vanderplank, R. (2007). A review of listening strategies: focus on sources of knowledge and on success. In A. Cohen & E. Macaro (Eds.), Language Learner Strategies: 30 years of Research and Practice. Oxford University Press.

  • Macaro, E. (2005). Codeswitching in the L2 Classroom: A Communication and Learning Strategy. In Non-Native Language Teachers (pp. 63-84). Springer Nature.

  • Journal articles
  • Macaro, E., & Tian, L. (2023). Developing EMI teachers through a collaborative research model. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 44(10), 1076-1091.

  • Macaro, E., & Rose, H. (2023). Introduction to the special issue on English medium instruction: areas of research needing urgent attention . Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 13(2), 257-269.

  • Macaro, E. (2022). English Medium Instruction: What do we know so far and what do we still need to find out?. Language Teaching, 55(4), 533-546.

  • Woore, R., Molway, L., & Macaro, E. (2022). Keeping sight of the big picture: a critical response to Ofsted’s 2021 Curriculum Research Review for languages. Language Learning Journal, 50(2), 146-155.

  • An, J., & Macaro, E. (2022). Exclusive use of the second language in classroom interaction in English Medium Instruction science classrooms: the beliefs of students and their monolingual teachers. Language Teaching Research.

  • Macaro, E., & Aizawa, I. (2022). Who owns English medium instruction?. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 1-14.

  • Rose, H., Macaro, E., Sahan, K., Aizawa, I., Zhou, S., & Wei, M. (2021). Defining English Medium Instruction: striving for comparative equivalence. Language Teaching, 56(4), 539-550.

  • Sahan, K., Rose, H., & Macaro, E. (2021). Models of EMI pedagogies: At the interface of language use and interaction. System, 101.

  • Macaro, E., Sahan, K., & Rose, H. (2021). The profiles of English Medium Instruction teachers in higher education. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 31(3), 458-474.

  • An, J., Macaro, E., & Childs, A. (2021). Classroom interaction in EMI high schools: Do teachers who are native speakers of English make a difference?. System, 98.

  • Molway, L., Arcos, M., & Macaro, E. (2020). Language teachers’ reported first and second language use: A comparative contextualized study of England and Spain. Language Teaching Research, 26(4), 642-670.

  • Macaro, E., Han, S., & Akincioglu, M. (2019). English medium instruction in higher education: teacher perspectives on professional development and certification. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 30(1), 144-157.

  • An, J., Macaro, E., & Childs, A. (2019). Language focused episodes by monolingual teachers in English Medium Instruction science lessons. Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education, 7(2), 166-191.

  • Fung, D., & Macaro, E. (2019). Exploring the relationship between linguistic knowledge and strategy use in listening comprehension. Language Teaching Research, 25(4), 540-564.

  • Macaro, E. (2019). Exploring the role of language in English medium instruction. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 23(3), 263-276.

  • Macaro, E., & Han, S. (2019). English Medium Instruction in China’s higher education: teachers’ perspectives of competencies, certification and professional development. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 41(3), 219-231.

  • Macaro, E., Jiménez Muñoz, A., & Lasagabaster, D. (2019). The Importance of Certification of English Medium Instruction teachers in Higher Education in Spain. Porta Linguarum Revista Interuniversitaria De Didáctica De Las Lenguas Extranjeras, 32, 103-118.

  • Pun, J., & Macaro, E. (2018). The effect of first and second language use on question types in English medium instruction science classrooms in Hong Kong. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 22(1), 64-77.

  • Briggs, J., Dearden, J., & Macaro, E. (2018). English Medium Instruction: comparing teacher beliefs in secondary and tertiary education. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 8(3), 673-696.

  • Macaro, E., Tian, L., & Chu, L. (2018). First and second language use in English medium instruction contexts. Language Teacher Research, 24(3), 382-402.

  • Macaro, E., Curle, S., Pun, J., An, J., & Dearden, J. (2017). A systematic review of English Medium Instruction in Higher Education. Language Teaching, 51(1), 36-76.

  • Macaro, E., & Akincioglu, M. (2017). Turkish university students’ perceptions about English Medium Instruction: exploring year group, gender and university type as variables. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 39(3), 256-270.

  • Macaro, E. (2017). Students’ strategies in response to teachers’ second language explanations of lexical items. Language Learning Journal, 45(3), 352-367.

  • Hennebry, M., Rogers, V., Macaro, E., & Murphy, V. (2017). Direct teaching of vocabulary after listening: is it worth the effort and what method is best?. Language Learning Journal, 45(3), 282-300.

  • Macaro, E., Hultgren, A., & Kirkpatrick, A. (2017). English medium instruction: Global views and countries in focus. Language Teaching.

  • Zhao, T., & Macaro, E. (2016). Teachers’ L1 use or L2‐only explanations. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 26(1), 75-98.

  • Dearden, J., Macaro, E., & Akincioglu, M. (2016). English medium instruction in universities: A collaborative experiment in Turkey. Studies in English Language Teaching, 4(1), 51-76.

  • Dearden, J., & Macaro, E. (2016). Higher Education Teachers’ Attitudes towards English Medium Instruction: A three country comparison. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 6(3), 455-486.

  • Lo, Y., & Macaro, E. (2015). Getting used to content and language integrated learning: what can classroom interaction reveal?. Language Learning Journal, 43(3), 239-255.

  • Macaro, E., & Tian, L. (2015). Exploring teachers’ oral explanations of new English lexical items in a Chinese university: Comparisons with dictionary information. System, 52, 78-90.

  • Oxford, R., Griffiths, C., Longhini, A., Cohen, A., Macaro, E., & Harris, V. (2014). Experts’ personal metaphors and similes about language learning strategies. System, 43, 11-29.

  • Murphy, V., Macaro, E., Alba, S., & Cipolla, C. (2014). The influence of learning a second language in primary school on developing first language literacy skills. Applied Psycholinguistics, 36(5), 1133-1153.

  • Macaro, E., Nakatani, Y., Hayashi, Y., & Khabbazbashi, N. (2014). Exploring the value of bilingual language assistants with Japanese English as a foreign language learners. Language Learning Journal, 42(1), 41-54.

  • Lee, J., & Macaro, E. (2013). Investigating age in the use of L1 or english‐only instruction: Vocabulary acquisition by Korean EFL learners. Modern Language Journal, 97(4), 887-901.

  • Macaro, E., & Lee, J. (2013). Teacher Language Background, Codeswitching, and English‐Only Instruction: Does Age Make a Difference to Learners’ Attitudes?. TESOL Quarterly, 47(4), 717-742.

  • Tian, L., & Macaro, E. (2012). Comparing the effect of teacher codeswitching with English-only explanations on the vocabulary acquisition of Chinese university students: A Lexical Focus-on-Form study. Language Teaching Research, 16(3), 367-391.

  • Macaro, E., Handley, Z., & Walter, C. (2012). A systematic review of CALL in English as a second language: Focus on primary and secondary education. Language Teaching, 45(1), 1-43.

  • Lo, Y., & Macaro, E. (2012). The medium of instruction and classroom interaction: evidence from Hong Kong secondary schools. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 15(1), 29-52.

  • Hennebry, M., Lo, Y., & Macaro, E. (2012). Differing perspectives of non-native speaker students’ linguistic experiences on higher degree courses. OXFORD REVIEW OF EDUCATION, 38(2), 209-230.

  • ERLER, L., & MACARO, E. (2011). Decoding Ability in French as a Foreign Language and Language Learning Motivation. Modern Language Journal, 95(4), 496-518.

  • Macaro, E. (2010). Review of recent research (2000–2008) on applied linguistics and language teaching with specific reference to L2 Italian. Language Teaching, 43(2), 127-153.

  • Macaro, E., & Graham, S. (2009). Erratum: The development of the passe compose in lower-intermediate learners of French as a second language (Language Learning Journal (2008) vol. 36(1) (5)). Language Learning Journal, 37(1), 139-140.

  • Macaro, E., & Mutton, T. (2009). Developing reading achievement in primary learners of French: inferencing strategies versus exposure to ‘graded readers’. Language Learning Journal, 37(2), 165-182.

  • Graham, S., & Macaro, E. (2008). Strategy Instruction in Listening for Lower‐Intermediate Learners of French. Language Learning, 58(4), 747-783.

  • Macaro, E., & Graham, S. (2008). The development of the passé composé in lower-intermediate learners of French as a second language. Language Learning Journal, 36(1), 5-19.

  • Macaro, E. (2008). The decline in language learning in England: getting the facts right and getting real. Language Learning Journal, 36(1), 101-108.

  • Macaro, E. (2007). Language learner strategies: adhering to a theoretical framework. Language Learning Journal, 35(2), 239-243.

  • Graham, S., & Macaro, E. (2007). Designing Year 12 strategy training in listening and writing: from theory to practice. Language Learning Journal, 35(2), 153-173.

  • Macaro, E., & Erler, L. (2007). Raising the achievement of young-beginner readers of French through strategy instruction. Applied Linguistics, 29(1), 90-119.

  • Macaro, E. (2007). Do near-beginner learners of French have any writing strategies?. Language Learning Journal, 35(1), 23-35.

  • Macaro, E. (2007). Applied Linguistics Group at the University of Oxford. Language Teaching, 41(1), 131-134.

  • MACARO, E. (2006). Strategies for Language Learning and for Language Use: Revising the Theoretical Framework. Modern Language Journal, 90(3), 320-337.

  • Macaro, E., & Masterman, L. (2006). Does intensive explicit grammar instruction make all the difference?. Language Teaching Research, 10(3), 297-327.

  • Macaro, E. (2003). Second language teachers as second language classroom researchers. Language Learning Journal, 27(1), 43-51.

  • Macaro, E. (2003). Italian language teaching research: living up to expectations. Tuttitalia, 27, 14-19.

  • Macaro, E., & Mutton, T. (2002). Developing language teachers through a co-researcher model. Language Learning Journal, 25(1), 27-39.

  • Macaro, E. (2002). Pedagogia interattiva (part 2): problems with giving explanations of “aspect” in Italian as a foreign language with English as L1. Tuttitalia, 25, 23-26.

  • Macaro, E. (2001). Analysing Student Teachers’ Codeswitching in Foreign Language Classrooms: Theories and Decision Making. Modern Language Journal, 85(4), 531-548.

  • Macaro, E. (n.d.). A systematic review of the teaching and learning of Italian as a second or foreign language. Language Teaching, 43(2), 127-153.

  • Macaro, E., & Aizawa, I. (n.d.). English medium instruction, EAP/ESP: exploring overlap and divergences in research aims. International Journal of Applied Linguistics.

  • Reports
  • Murphy, V., Arndt, H., Briggs Baffoe-Djan, J., Chalmers, H., Macaro, E., Rose, H., Vanderplank, R., & Woore, R. (2020). Foreign language learning and its impact on wider academic outcomes: A rapid evidence assessment. Education Endowment Foundation.

  • Macaro, E., BRIGGS BAFFOE-DJAN, J., ROSE, H., di Sabato, B., Hughes, B., Cuccurullo, D., Coonan, C., Menegale, M., & Bier, A. (2019). Transition from secondary school CLIL to EMI at university: Initial evidence from research in Italy. British Council.

  • Other
  • Macaro, E., Vanderplank, R., & Graham, S. (2005). A systematic review of the role of prior knowledge in unidirectional listening comprehension. EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London.

  • Hassan, X., Macaro, E., Mason, D., Nye, G., Smith, P., & Vanderplank, R. (2005). Strategy training in language learning – a systematic review of available research. EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London.