Jo-Anne is Director of the Oxford University Centre for Educational Assessment.  She completed a six-year term as Head of the Department of Education, has been Standing Adviser to the House of Commons Education Select Committee, a member of Ofqual’s Standing Advisory Group on Standards, Chair of the National Reference Test Expert Group, and a member of the Welsh Government’s Curriculum and Assessment Group.

Before coming to Oxford, Jo-Anne held academic posts at the Institute of Education, University of London and the University of Bristol. Her first degree and doctorate were in psychology and she has an MBA.  Her research projects include Setting and Maintaining Standards in national examinations, Examination reform: the impact of modular and linear examinations at GCSE, Assessment for Learning in Africa (AFLA), intelligent accountability and the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study England national centre.

Her research interests are in educational assessment, including system-wide structures and processes, examination standards, marking and assessment design.  Jo-Anne conducts a lot of work in collaboration with government and industry partners. She is a Co-Lead Editor of the Oxford Review of Education journal.  She has been a Visiting Professor at the universities of Bergen and Queen’s (Belfast) and was awarded an Honorary Doctorate from the University of Bergen in 2019.  From 2013 to 2015 she was President of the Association for Educational Assessment – Europe.

Research

Books
  • Newton, P., Baird, J., Goldstein, H., Patrick, H., & Tymms, P. (2007). Comparability of UK public examinations. QCA book publication.

  • Book chapters
  • Stobart, G., Baird, J., & Hayward, L. (2023). Inspiring Change in Classroom Assessment. In Educational Assessment: the Influence of Paul Black on Research, Pedagogy and Practice (pp. 45-62).

  • Baird, J.-A., & Hopfenbeck, T. (2015). Curriculum in the twenty-first century and the future of examinations. In D. Wyse, L. Hayward, & J. Pandya (Eds.), SAGE Handbook of Curriculum, Pedagogy and Assessment (pp. 821-837). SAGE Publications.
    https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:b7964492-3d5c-4c2e-a403-3ee2855cbb27

  • Baird, J. (2010). Country case study – England. In B. Vlaardingerbroek & N. Taylor (Eds.), Secondary School External Examination Regimes: A Global Overview of a Robust Educational Phenomenon. Cambria Press.

  • Journal articles
  • Baird, J.-A., Elliott, V., & Strand, S. (2024). Foreword to the fiftieth volume. Oxford Review of Education, 50(1), 1-5.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03054985.2023.2298577

  • Hayward, L., Baird, J.-A., Godfrey-Faussett, T., & Randhawa, A. (2023). National Qualifications in Scotland: a lightning rod for public concern about equity in pandemic. European Journal of Education, 58(1), 83-97.
    https://doi.org/10.1111/ejed.12543https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:bfdc6967-4e7e-4368-8068-785eb7dbe15e

  • Ozga, J., Baird, J.-A., Saville, L., Arnott, M., & Hell, N. (2023). Knowledge, expertise and policy in the examinations crisis in England. Oxford Review of Education.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03054985.2022.2158071https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:946462cf-f7bf-409e-88d4-f6c1dcb86345

  • Baird, J.-A., Hayward, L., Meadows, M., & Hao, Z. (2023). Assessment and learning loss in England: never let a good crisis go to waste. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2023.2274112

  • Erduran, S., Ioannidou, O., & Baird, J.-A. (2021). The impact of epistemic framing of teaching videos and summative assessments on students’ learning of scientific methods. International Journal of Science Education, 43(18), 2885-2910.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09500693.2021.1998717

  • Gray, L., & Baird, J.-A. (2020). Systemic influences on standard setting in national examinations. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 27(2), 137-141.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2020.1750116https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:f290d7b5-e3ee-4d7d-9820-552effb26d87

  • Opposs, D., Baird, J.-A., Chankseliani, M., Stobart, G., Kaushik, A., McManus, H., & Johnson, D. (2020). Governance structure and standard setting in educational assessment. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice , 27(2), 192-214.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2020.1730766https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:8bff9f7e-7607-4776-b5cf-2a56391c2039

  • Childs, A., & Baird, J.-A. (2020). General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) and the assessment of science practical work: an historical review of assessment policy. Curriculum Journal, 31(3), 357-378.
    https://doi.org/10.1002/curj.20https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:2dd427cf-ebf3-4378-a7e2-a97842f360ea

  • Pinot De Moira, A., Meadows, M., & Baird, J.-A. (2019). The SES equity gap and the reform from modular to linear GCSE mathematics. British Educational Research Journal, 46(2), 421-436.
    https://doi.org/10.1002/berj.3585https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:b3a528cf-379e-4b71-baff-bebb7b5d47ef

  • Deem, R., & Baird, J.-A. (2019). The English Teaching Excellence (and student outcomes) Framework: intelligent accountability in higher education?. Journal of Educational Change, 21(2020), 215-243.
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10833-019-09356-0https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:a69b57a1-2721-4b72-8ff9-05554e638391

  • Baird, J.-A., Andrich, D., Hopfenbeck, T., & Stobart, G. (2019). Assessment and learning: fields apart? (vol 24, pg 317, 2017). ASSESSMENT IN EDUCATION-PRINCIPLES POLICY & PRACTICE, 1.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2017.1371370

  • Baird, J.-A., & Elliott, V. (2018). Metrics in education—control and corruption. Oxford Review of Education, 44(5), 533-544.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03054985.2018.1504858https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:bb01fdb8-d290-41d5-89eb-a37ae9eb6462

  • Baird, J.-A., Andrich, D., Hopfenbeck, T., & Stobart, G. (2017). Metrology of education. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 24(3), 463-470.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2017.1337628https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:dd491038-61e4-4d45-a619-d0cd33b624eb

  • Hopfenbeck, T., Lenkeit, J., El Masri, Y., Cantrell, K., Ryan, J., & Baird, J.-A. (2017). Lessons learned from PISA: a systematic review of peer-reviewed articles on the Programme for International Student Assessment. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 1-21.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2016.1258726https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:76a5957d-0fc1-401a-b37d-1beb95418d43

  • Baird, J.-A., Caro, D., & Hopfenbeck, T. (2016). Student perceptions of predictability of examination requirements and relationship with outcomes in high-stakes tests in Ireland. Irish Educational Studies, 35(4), 361-379.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03323315.2016.1227719https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:c4c38ab1-74fc-4dd7-a8e6-2143d2b77e6a

  • El Masri, Y., Baird, J.-A., & Graesser, A. (2016). Language effects in international testing: the case of PISA 2006 science items. Assessment in Education, 23(4), 427-455.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2016.1218323https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:fa8b3fcc-ac71-4daf-aa06-1ec407d920eb

  • El Masri, Y., Ferrara, S., Foltz, P., & Baird, J.-A. (2016). Predicting item difficulty of science National Curriculum tests: The case of Key Stage 2 assessments. Curriculum Journal, 28(1), 59-82.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09585176.2016.1232201https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:79515600-2427-4e38-b4cf-603987af1726

  • Baird, J.-A., & Gray, L. (2016). The meaning of curriculum-related examination standards in Scotland and England: a home-international comparison. Oxford Review of Education, 42(3), 266-284.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03054985.2016.1184866https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:9d1ecfbb-7e7e-487a-a546-29ba3a3872b3

  • Baird, J.-A., Johnson, S., Hopfenbeck, T., Isaacs, T., Sprague, T., Stobart, G., & Yu, G. (2016). On the supranational spell of PISA in policy. Educational Research, 58(2), 121-138.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00131881.2016.1165410https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:94250aea-cea7-4fb2-aa08-ec321f3277b9

  • Baird, J., Meadows, M., Leckie, G., & Caro, D. (2015). Rater accuracy and training group effects in Expert- and Supervisor-based monitoring systems. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice, 24(1), 44-59.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2015.1108283https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:75a8d069-b8b8-423f-ba08-beec073c04a8

  • Lenkeit, J., Chan, J., Hopfenbeck, T., & Baird, J.-A. (2015). A review of the representation of PIRLS related research in scientific journals. Educational Research Review, 16, 102-115.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2015.10.002

  • Elwood, J., Hopfenbeck, T., & Baird, J.-A. (2015). Predictability in high-stakes examinations: students’ perspectives on a perennial assessment dilemma. Research Papers in Education, 32(1), 1-17.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02671522.2015.1086015https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:d29bd123-ddb3-4c9d-9434-c0bc86895a61

  • Baird, J.-A. (2014). Teachers’ views on assessment practices. Assessment in Education Principles Policy and Practice, 21(4), 361-364.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0969594x.2014.960689

  • Baird, J. (2014). Assessment and attitude. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice, 21(2), 129-132.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2014.904076

  • Baird, J. (2013). Judging students’ performances. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice, 20(3), 247-249.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2013.812396

  • Elwood, J., & Baird, J.-A. (2013). Students: researching voice, aspirations and perspectives in the context of educational policy change in the 14–19 phase. London Review of Education, 11(2), 91-96.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14748460.2013.799806

  • Rose, J., & Baird, J.-A. (2013). Aspirations and an austerity state: young people’s hopes and goals for the future. London Review of Education, 11(2), 157-173.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14748460.2013.799811

  • Baird, J.-A. (2013). The currency of assessments. Assessment in Education Principles Policy and Practice, 20(2), 147-149.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0969594x.2013.787782

  • Baird, J.-A., & Black, P. (2013). Test theories, educational priorities and reliability of public examinations in England. Research Papers in Education, 28(1), 5-21.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02671522.2012.754224

  • Simpson, L., & Baird, J.-A. (2013). Perceptions of trust in public examinations. Oxford Review of Education, 39(1), 17-35.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03054985.2012.760264

  • Baird, J., & Black, P. (2013). The reliability of public examinations. Research Papers in Education, 28(1), 1-4.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02671522.2012.754232

  • Baird, J.-A., & Black, P. (2013). The reliability of public examinations. Research Papers in Education.

  • Baird, J., Rose, J., & McWhirter, A. (2012). So tell me what you want: A comparison of FE college and other post-16 students’ aspirations. Research in Post-Compulsory Education, 17(3), 293-310.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13596748.2012.700095

  • Baird, J. (2012). Do we need marking at all?. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice, 19(3), 277-279.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2012.692513

  • Daly, A., Baird, J., Chamberlain, S., & Meadows, M. (2012). Assessment reform: Students’ and teachers’ responses to the introduction of stretch and challenge at A-level. Curriculum Journal, 23(2), 139-155.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09585176.2012.678683

  • Baird, J. (2012). Science and misfits. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice, 19(2), 141-145.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2012.668003

  • Leckie, G., & Baird, J. (2011). Rater Effects on Essay Scoring: A Multilevel Analysis of Severity Drift, Central Tendency, and Rater Experience. Journal of Educational Measurement, 48(4), 399-418.
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-3984.2011.00152.x

  • Baird, J. (2011). Does the learning happen inside the black box?. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice, 18(4), 343-345.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2011.614857

  • Baird, J. (2011). Why do people appeal higher education grades and what can it tell us about the meaning of standards?. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice, 18(1), 1-4.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2011.542036

  • Baird, J.-A. (2010). What Constitutes Legitimate Causal Linking?. Measurement Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives, 8(4), 151-153.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15366361003748219

  • Baird, J. (2010). Construct‐irrelevant variance sometimes has consequential validity. Assessment in Education Principles Policy and Practice, 17(4), 339-343.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0969594x.2010.516207

  • Baird, J. (2010). Examinations versus teacher assessments. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice, 17(3), 251-254.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2010.496216

  • Baird, J. (2010). The theory-practice gap. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice, 17(2), 113-116.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09695941003732357

  • Baird, J. (2010). Beliefs and practice in teacher assessment. Assessment in Education Principles Policy and Practice, 17(1), 1-5.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09695940903562682

  • BAIRD, J., & Coxell, A. (2009). Policy, latent error and systemic examination failures. Cadmo, 17(2), 105-122.
    https://doi.org/10.3280/CAD2009-002011

  • Baird, J. (2009). Macro and micro influences on assessment practice. Assessment in Education Principles Policy and Practice, 16(2), 127-129.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09695940903075883

  • Royal‐Dawson, L., & Baird, J. (2009). Is Teaching Experience Necessary for Reliable Scoring of Extended English Questions?. Educational Measurement Issues and Practice, 28(2), 2-8.
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-3992.2009.00142.x

  • Baird, J., & Lee‐Kelley, L. (2009). The dearth of managerialism in implementation of national examinations policy. Journal of Education Policy, 24(1), 55-81.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02680930802382938

  • Newton, P., Stobart, G., Goldstein, H., Goldstein, H., Newton, P., Harlen, W., Baird, J., Harlen, W., Winter, J., & Newton, P. (2008). Return of the bible. Assessment in Education Principles Policy and Practice, 15(3), 307-320.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09695940802426427

  • Baird, J., Greatorex, J., & Bell, J. (2004). What makes marking reliable? Experiments with UK examinations. Assessment in Education Principles Policy and Practice, 11(3), 331-348.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0969594042000304627

  • Richardson, M., Baird, J.-A., Ridgway, J., Ripley, M., Shorrocks-Taylor, D., & Swan, M. (2002). Challenging minds? Students’ perceptions of computer-based World Class Tests of problem solving. Computers in Human Behavior, 18(6), 633-649.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/s0747-5632(02)00021-3

  • Baird, J.-A., & Scharaschkin, A. (2002). Is the Whole Worth More than the Sum of the Parts? Studies of Examiners’ Grading of Individual Papers and Candidates’ Whole A-level Examination Performances. Educational Studies, 28(2), 143-162.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03055690220124588

  • Scharaschkin, A., & Baird, J. (2000). The Effects of Consistency of Performance on A Level Examiners’ Judgements of Standards. British Educational Research Journal, 26(3), 343-357.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/713651557

  • Baird, J., Cresswell, M., & Newton, P. (2000). Would the real gold standard please step forward?. Research Papers in Education, 15(2), 213-226.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/026715200402506

  • Baird, J. (1998). What’s in a name? Experiments with blind marking in A‐level examinations. Educational Research, 40(2), 191-202.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0013188980400207

  • Baird, J., & Coxell, A. (n.d.). Policy, Latent Error and Systemic Examination Failures. CADMO, XVII((2), 105-122.
    https://doi.org/10.3280/CAD2009-002011

  • Internet publication
  • Baird, J. (2014). Tiered GCSE papers that cap ambition should be abolished. The Conversation.
    https://theconversation.com/tiered-gcse-papers-that-cap-ambition-should-be-abolished-30592

  • Reports
  • BAIRD, J.-A., Caro, D., ELLIOTT, V., EL MASRI, Y., INGRAM, J., RANDHAWA, A., Isaacs, T., Stobart, G., Meadows, M., Morin, C., Pinot de Moira, A., & Taylor, R. (2019). Examination reform: Impact of linear and modular examinations at GCSE.

  • McGrane, J., Stiff, J., Lenkeit, J., Hopfenbeck, T., & Baird, J. (2017). Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS): National Report for England. Department for Education.
    https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/664562/PIRLS_2016_National_Report_for_England-_BRANDED.pdf

  • Elliott, V., BAIRD, J., Hopfenbeck, T., Ingram, J., Thompson, I., Usher, N., Zantout, M., Richardson, J., & Coleman, R. (2016). A marked improvement? A review of the evidence on written marking. Education Endowment Foundation.
    https://educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk/public/files/Publications/EEF_Marking_Review_April_2016.pdf

  • Elwood, J., Barrance, R., Hopfenbeck, T., Baird, J., Ryan, J., Paget, C., Brown, C., & O’Boyle, A. (2015). Predictability in the Irish Leaving Certificate Examination Working Paper 4: Teachers’ and Students’ Perspectives. University of Oxford and Queen’s University, Belfast.

  • Baird, J., Hopfenbeck, T., Ahmed, A., Elwood, J., Paget, C., & Usher, N. (2015). Predictability in the Irish Leaving Certificate Examination Working Paper 1: Review of the Literature. Oxford University and Queen’s University Belfast.

  • Baird, J., Hopfenbeck, T., Elwood, J., Caro, D., & Ahmed, A. (2015). Predictability in the Irish Leaving Certificate. Oxford University and Queen’s University, Belfast.

  • Ahmed, A., & Baird, J. (2015). Predictability in the Irish Leaving Certificate Examination Working Paper 2: Examination Materials Research. Oxford University and Queen’s University Belfast.

  • Baird, J., Hopfenbeck, T., Newton, P., Stobart, G., & Steen-Utheim, A. (2014). State of the field review: Assessment and Learning.

  • Caro, D., & Baird, J.-A. (2013). Assessing the value of multilevel models for the study of marker reliability. Oxford University Centre for Educational Assessment.

  • Baird, J.-A., Ahmed, A., Hopfenbeck, T., Brown, C., & Elliott, V. (2013). Research evidence relating to proposals for reform of the GCSE. Oxford University Centre for Educational Assessment.
    https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:7816d592-0dd6-4882-acf7-72fbd16decd2

  • Baird, J.-A., Hayes, M., Johnson, R., Johnson, S., & Lamprianou, I. (2013). Marker effects and examination reliability: A comparative exploration from the perspectives of generalizability theory, Rasch modelling and multilevel modelling. In Report commissioned by the Office of Qualifications and Examinations Regulation. Office of Qualifications and Examinations Regulation.
    https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:1dd146f0-31ee-469f-af82-13ad7a674e8e

  • Baird, J.-A., Pillinger, R., & Steele, F. (2012). Use of the LEMMA Online Learning Materials. In Report prepared for the LEMMA node, University of Bristol. National Centre for Research Methods.
    https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:7b03ae2c-5f75-4957-ae3d-c94b33cc8795

  • Baird, J.-A., Isaacs, T., Johnson, S., Stobart, G., Yu, G., Sprague, T., & Daugherty, R. (2011). Policy effects of PISA. In Report commissioned by Pearson UK. Oxford University Centre for Educational Assessment.
    https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:26c9fccd-ae47-424e-ba40-0c84ebedfc3e

  • Baird, J.-A., Elwood, J., Duffy, G., Feiler, A., O’Boyle, A., Rose, J., Stobart, G., & McWhirter, A. (2011). 14-19 Centre Research Study: educational reforms in schools and colleges in England. In Centre Research Study. University of Bristol.
    https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:56ac1b65-1809-439f-a037-1dc628b12464

  • Baird, J.-A., Béguin, A., Black, P., Pollitt, A., & Stanley, G. (2011). The reliability programme: final report of the Technical Advisory Group. In Office of the Qualifications and Examinations Regulator Report. Office of Qualifications and Examinations Regulation.
    https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:89fa1d47-fbbf-4154-8247-1109091888d9

  • Baird, J., Chamberlain, S., Meadows, M., Royal-Dawson, L., & Taylor, R. (2009). Students’ views of stretch and challenge in A-level examinations. In Qualifications and Curriculum Authority Report.

  • Baird, J., Daly, A., Tremain, K., & Meadows, M. (2009). Stretch and challenge in A-level examinations: Teachers’ views of the new assessments. In Qualifications and Curriculum Authority Report.

  • Royal-Dawson, L., Leckie, G., & Baird, J. (2009). An Operational Report On Item Statistics For Standardisation & Benchmarking Data – 2008 National Curriculum Tests, for National Assessment Agency.

  • Baird, J. (2008). Independent Adviser’s Report 2008. A report on the statutory assessment level setting process for the National Assessment Agency. In National Assessment Agency Report.

  • Leckie, G., Royal-Dawson, L., & Baird, J. (2008). Changes in the severity of marking as a function of number of scripts marked: Key Stage 3 English Writing Summer 2008 quality assurance data. In National Assessment Agency Report.

  • Politt, A., Ahmed, A., Baird, J., Tognolini, J., & Davidson, M. (2008). Improving the quality of GCSE assessment. Qualifications and Curriculum Authority.

  • Baird, J., & Stobart, G. (2008). Conceptualising the Single Level Tests. In National Assessment Agency Report.

  • Baird, J., Oates, T., Patrick, H., Stobart, G., Whetton, C., Blaker, P., Sandhu, K., Watson, C., & Wood, A. (2008). Single Level Tests. Interim Technical Report: December 2007 Test Session. In National Assessment Agency Report.

  • Newton, P., Goldstein, H., Tymms, P., & Baird, J. (2007). What has England learned from decades of monitoring the comparability of examination standards?. In Qualifications and Curriculum Authority Report.

  • Other
  • Newton, P., & Baird, J.-A. (2016). The great validity debate. In Assessment in Education Principles Policy and Practice (Vols. 23, Issues 2, pp. 173-177). Taylor & Francis.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0969594x.2016.1172871

  • Baird, J. (2014). Editorial. In Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice (Vols. 21, Issue 1, pp. 1-3).
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2014.881152

  • Baird, J. (2012). Editorial. In Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice (Vols. 19, Issues 4, pp. 389-391).
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2012.729801

  • Baird, J., Elwood, J., & Isaacs, T. (2012). Written evidence submitted to the Education Select Committee’s Inquiry into the administration of examinations for 15-19 year olds in England.

  • Funded Research Projects

    • The impact of linear and modular examinations at GCSE (Ofqual)
    • Predictability of the Irish Leaving Certificate (State Examinations Commission, Ireland)
    • A state of the field review: assessment and learning (Norwegian Research Council Knowledge Centre for Education)
    • PIRLS National Centre for England; Department for Education