Michelle is Associate Professor in Educational Assessment and Course Director for the MSc in Educational Assessment.

Michelle has a PhD in psychology from the University of Manchester. Her research interests span most elements of high stakes assessments and qualifications. For example, she has conducted research into marking reliability, marker recruitment and retention, the maintenance of standards both between and within qualifications, construct validity, malpractice, and the wash back of high stakes assessments on teaching and learning. Michelle has published work in academic books and journals, and has presented at national and international conferences.

Michelle is also a member of the Assessment Committee of the Institute of Directors. The committee is responsible for quality assuring the Institute’s qualifications in business leadership.

Prior to September 2021 Michelle was Deputy Chief Regulator and Executive Director for Strategy, Risk and Research at Ofqual. She was responsible for research to support the development of high stakes assessment; the successful delivery of reliable and valid public examinations; qualification design to stimulate high quality teaching and learning; and the regulation of the maintenance of examination standards.

Before May 2014 Michelle was Director of AQA’s Centre for Education Research and Practice and was a member of AQA’s Executive Board, responsible for ensuring that AQA’s strategy, products and policies were grounded in a robust research evidence base.



Journal articles

He, Q., Meadows, M.L. & Black, B. (2020) An introduction to statistical techniques used for detecting anomaly in test results, Research Papers in Education, DOI: 10.1080/02671522.2020.1812108

Cuff, B.M., Meadows, M.L. & Black, B. (2019) An investigation into the Sawtooth Effect in secondary school assessments in England, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 26, 3, 321-339.

Pinot de Moira, A., Meadows, M.L. & Baird, J-A. (2019) The SES equity gap and the reform from modular to linear GCSE mathematics, British Educational Research Journal, https://doi.org/10.1002/berj.3585.

He, Q., Stockford, I. & Meadows, M.L. (2018) Inter-subject comparability of examination standards in GCSE and GCE in England, Oxford Review of Education, 44, 4, 494-513.

Holmes, S.D., Meadows, M.L., Stockford, I. & He, Q. (2018) Investigating the Comparability of Examination Difficulty Using Comparative Judgement and Rasch Modelling, International Journal of Testing, 18, 4, 366-391.

Meadows, M.L. & Black, B. (2018) Teachers’ experience of and attitudes toward activities to maximise qualification results in England, Oxford Review of Education, 44, 5, 563-580.

Baird, J., Meadows, M.L., Leckie, G. & Caro, D. (2017) Rater accuracy and training group effects in Expert- and Supervisor-based monitoring systems, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 24, 1, 44 – 59. 

 Holmes, S.D., He, Q. & Meadows, M.L. (2017) An investigation of construct relevant and irrelevant features of mathematics problem-solving questions using comparative judgement and Kelly’s Repertory Grid, Research in Mathematics Education, 19, 2, 112-129.


Newton, P. & Meadows, M.L. (2011) Marking quality within test and examination systems, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice, 18, 213-216.

Published reports

Baird, J., Caro, D., Elliott, V., El Masri, Y., Ingram, J. Isaacs, T., Pinot de Moira, A., Randhawa, A., Stobart, G., Meadows, M., Morin, C., & Taylor, R. (2019) Examination Reform: the impact of linear and modular examinations at GCSE, Joint OUCEA and Ofqual Report.

He, Q., Meadows, M., & Black, B. (2018) Teacher involvement in developing exam papers: Findings from our call for evidence, Ofqual Report.

He, Q., Meadows, M., & Black, B. (2018) Teacher involvement in developing exam papers: Student focus groups and parent interviews, Ofqual Report.

He, Q., Meadows, M., & Black, B. (2018) Statistical techniques for studying anomaly in test results: A review of the literature, Ofqual Report.