Seminars and Events

All events are held at 15 Norham Gardens, Oxford OX2 6PY unless otherwise stated.

All are welcome to those indicated as ‘public seminars’ in parentheses after the title. These are held on Monday evenings and there is no need to book. If you are coming from outside the Department and would like to attend any of the other seminars or events, please contact the convener(s) beforehand.
Click on the title of the event for further information.

An introduction to Item Response Theory and application to practise gradings in health education

08 February 2016 12:30 - 13:45
Seminar Room D

Speaker: Dr Daniel MuijsUniversity of Southampton

Conveners: Professor Steve Strand, Dr Lars-Erik Malmberg and Dr James Hall, Quantitative Methods Hub

Item response theory represents a major breakthrough in measurement theory. Conceptualising items as indicators of underlying traits, item response models have a number of highly desirable measurement properties, including the ability to separate item and sample characteristics and do non-parallel test equating. In this seminar we will introduce key concepts and background of IR and, look at different IRT models, such as the Rasch model. Finally we will present an application of IRT modelling to the grading of practise experiences of nursing students to help develop an understanding of the uses, advantages and disadvantages of IRT models in real-world contexts.

Social and emotional early development: a programme to develop children’s social skills and help prevent bullying (Public Seminar)

08 February 2016 16:30 - 18:00
Seminar Room A

Speaker: Professor Daniel Muijs, University of Southampton

Convener: Dr Lars-Erik Malmberg, Quantitative Methods Hub

While dealing with bullying when it occurs in schools is extremely important, we are increasingly finding that prevention is better than cure. Ensuring that schools create a culture in which all pupils develop empathy and social skills, especially among so-called ‘bystanders’ (those pupils who are neither the bully or the bullied but whose behaviour can strongly influence both) may therefore help to prevent future bullying behaviours.

The Social and Emotional Early Development (SEED) programme was developed as an intervention to improve the social and emotional skills of primary school age children and build their resilience and empathy, resulting in more positive social interactions. The programme is based on principles of social and emotional learning, teaching thinking skills and gamification, and consists of ten discreet activities which encourage reflection through collaborative group work, prompted by a scenario depicted through a cartoon.

In this presentation we will present the programme which was initially run in three local authorities in England, and look at its impact on pupils’ behaviours and personal and social development. To do this we used a quasi-experimental design in which schools were randomly assigned to receive the intervention at different times.

Daniel Muijs is Professor of Education at the University of Southampton. He is an acknowledged expert in the fields of school and teacher effectiveness, leadership, and quantitative research methods and is co-editor of the journal ‘School Effectiveness and School Improvement’. He has published widely in the areas of teacher and school effectiveness and improvement, educational leadership and research methods, and has a strong interest in the relationship between research, policy and practise.

He holds a PhD in Social Sciences from the Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium), and MSc in Managerial Economic (Catholic University of Leuven) and a BA in Communication Sciences (Catholic University of Leuven).

Comprehension strategies used by Hong Kong ESL learners when listening to the teacher in the classroom

09 February 2016 13:15 - 14:15
Seminar Room K/L

Speaker: Daniel Fung, Department of Education

An Applied Linguistics Lunchtime Seminar convened by: Dr Jess Briggs

Executive function: social influences and links with school readiness

10 February 2016 17:00 - 18:30
Seminar Room K/L

Speaker: Professor Claire Hughes Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge

Convener: Professor Terezinha Nunes for the Children Learning and Families, Effective Learning and Literacy (FELL) Research Groups

OSAT Reading Group

10 February 2016 17:00 - 18:30
Seminar Room C

Conveners: Dr Ian Thompson and Professor Harry Daniels Reading: Engeström, Y., Kajamaa, A., & Nummijoki, J. (2015). Double stimulation in everyday work: Critical encounters between home care workers and their elderly clients. Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, 4, 48–61.

Poverty and children's vocabulary development in Ethiopia: the effects of poverty timing, duration and transition

15 February 2016 12:30 - 13:45
Seminar Room D

Speaker: Nardos Tesfay, University of Oxford

Conveners: Professor Steve Strand, Dr Lars-Erik Malmberg and Dr James Hall, Quantitative Methods Hub

This DPhil study examines patterns of children’s vocabulary development in Ethiopia in relation to the children’s poverty contexts, drawing on the Young Lives prospective longitudinal study of 3,000 children who are followed over a fifteen year period (2002-2013).  The overall aim of the research is to better understand differential patterns of children’s vocabulary growth over time, the influence of poverty on developmental trajectories and moderated effects of the poverty-growth relationship.  The current discussion focuses on the empirical findings of the first two stages of analysis.  The first relates to the statistical validation of the assessment instrument as applied in the multilingual Ethiopian context.  The second examines trends in vocabulary development and the effects of poverty on development, exploring notions of poverty timing, duration, intensity and transitions.

Silence in Japan’s second language classrooms: the dynamic interplay between context and learners (Public Seminar)

15 February 2016 16:30 - 18:00
Seminar Room A

Speaker: Dr Jim King, University of Leicester

Convener: Dr Jessica Briggs, Applied Linguistics Research Group

Silence is an area of study that receives relatively little attention from second language (L2) researchers, who in the past have tended to concentrate more on the spoken aspects of discourse within classrooms. Far from being merely communicative voids in which nothing of interest happen, moments of silence during educational encounters are actually rich in form, function and meaning. This talk will report on a large-scale, multi-site investigation into the silent behaviour of L2 learners attending English classes within Japanese universities. Using a complexity perspective as its conceptual background, the investigation moves away from traditional, reductionist, single-cause explanations for learner reticence to suggest that silence actually emerges through multiple, concurrent routes. These routes are so abundant, and appear to be so well supported both educationally and culturally in the Japanese context, that silence appears to have fossilised into a semi-permanent attractor state within university language classrooms.

Jim King is Lecturer in Education within the University of Leicester’s School of Education. Before gaining a PhD in Applied Linguistics from the University of Nottingham, he taught in various countries around the world, including stints in Poland, Hungary, Italy, Japan and Australia. A post-doctoral fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), Jim’s research interests centre on the issues of silence in educational contexts and psychological aspects of second language learning. His publications include the monograph Silence in the second language classroom (2013) and the edited volume The dynamic interplay between context and the language learner (2015), both published by Palgrave Macmillan.

The pedagogical potential and limits of English Medium Instruction in Japanese English-as-a-Foreign-Language classrooms

16 February 2016 13:15 - 14:15
Seminar Room K/L

Speaker: Dr. Kazuya Saito, Birkbeck, University of London

An Applied Linguistics Lunchtime Seminar convened by: Dr Jess Briggs

Although the role of decontextualized language-focused instruction remains unclear, especially for the development of spontaneous speech production, a growing number of researchers have conceptualized, elaborated and validated a range of meaning-oriented and acquisition-rich L2 teaching approaches. One such example concerns English Medium Instruction (EMI), whereby students are required to take content-based classes in the target language together with foreign language or language art classes.

In this talk, I will report a longitudinal project which delved into the extent to which college-level Japanese learners of English can improve the global (comprehensibility and accentedness) as well as specific (pronunciation, fluency, vocabulary and grammar) qualities of L2 spontaneous speech over one academic year in EMI classrooms. Subsequently, I will also relate to how the level of proficiency achieved was related to the length (1 semester vs. 1 year) and focus (language-focused vs. content-based classes) of instruction that students had received as well as their language aptitude profiles (explicit and implicit pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar).

The findings will be discussed in terms of the pedagogical “potential” and “limits” of EMI programs of this kind. I will provide some promising directions for future research.

Stories from Facebook

17 February 2016 17:00 - 18:30
Seminar Room D

Speaker: Dr Eve Stirling, Sheffield Hallam University

Convener: Dr Rebecca Eynon, Learning and New Technologies Research Group


Within the range of websites and apps that are part of first-year undergraduates’ digital environments, the social network site Facebook is perhaps the most popular and prominent. As such, the ubiquitous nature of Facebook in the higher education landscape has drawn much attention from scholars. Drawing on data from a longitudinal connective ethnography, this paper uses two ethnographic stories to explore further the realities of social media usage by newly enrolled undergraduate students in a UK university. These ethnographic stories tell two differing tales – one of connection, intent, use and organisation – the other, of disconnection, disengagement and unrealised expectations. Facebook structures students’ time at university both through connection and disconnection practices and examples of these are presented under two headings ‘I’m always on it’ and ‘Being academic’. First-year student experiences of Higher Education and social media use are not uniform, but nuanced and responsive to their specific ecosocial systems.

Eve Stirling is a Senior Lecturer in Design at Sheffield Institute of Art at Sheffield Hallam University. Her research interests include the use of social media within society and more specifically within higher education and the pedagogical impacts of this. She is also interested in design thinking and its influence on the research process, ethnographic research methods and social media as a research tool and research site. She uses practice based and visual research methods to explore the everyday lives of her participants. She gained her PhD from the School of Education at the University of Sheffield and in this took a longitudinal ethnographic approach studying Facebook use by students in transition. She is interested in the proliferation of digital spaces within our everyday lives and the relationship between time and space within these.

Mathematical reasoning and achievement: a causal connection

17 February 2016 17:00 - 18:30
Seminar Room K/L

Speakers: Professor Peter Bryant, Deborah Evans,  Rossana Barros, Sue Baker and Professor Terezinha Nunes, Department of Education,

Convener: Professor Terezinha Nunes for the Children Learning and Families, Effective Learning and Literacy (FELL) Research Groups

Non-political elite interviewing: methodology in the technical age

18 February 2016 12:30 - 13:45
Seminar Room B

Speaker: Jaimie Miller-Friedmann , DPhil student, Department of Education

Convener: Dr Susan James Relly, Qualitative Methods Special Interest Group

This seminar will introduce a novel methodology for interviewing non-political elite subjects, including recruitment, preparation for interviewing, and subsequent approaches to successfully breaking through the subjects' 'media' barriers. This methodology was devised for thesis fieldwork, and preliminary results as well as obstacles will be discussed.

Prevalence and stability of concentration at KS2 before and after physical activity

22 February 2016 12:30 - 13:45
Seminar Room D

Speaker: Chris Heemskerk, University of Oxford

Conveners: Professor Steve Strand, Dr Lars-Erik Malmberg and Dr James Hall, Quantitative Methods Hub

Data from two schools was analysed using State Space Grids (SSG). Intrapersonal comparisons were made of prevalence and stability of concentration before and after physical activity (PA), in the context of the play-deprivation theory. The intrapersonal differences after unstructured PA (break time) were compared to those after teacher-led PA (Physical Education lessons). It was found that, within the present sample, prevalence of concentration had a positive relationship with PA, a stronger relationship was found for Physical Education (PE), especially when taught by subject specialists (r=0.86), than break (r=0.19). Stability of concentration had a negative relationship with PA, more strongly for break (r=0.78) than PE (r=0.43).

The sociolinguistic and pedagogic implications of the spread of English as global language (Public Seminar)

22 February 2016 16:30 - 18:00
Seminar Room A

Speaker: Dr Heath Rose, Department of Education

Convener: Professor Harry Daniels, Director of Research

The spread of English from the language of an island nation to today’s global lingua franca has clear ramifications for society, and for English language education. This presentation aims to provide an overview of research emerging from the field of Global Englishes, which is a growing research paradigm that aims to embrace issues surrounding the diversification and use of the English language. Global Englishes incorporates World Englishes and English as a lingua franca research—both of which have implications for society and pedagogy. World Englishes research (e.g. Kachru et al. 2009), the study of variation in English in geographical regions around the world, has been instrumental in widening our understanding of variation and change in language and challenging the notion of ‘standard’ English. English as a lingua franca research (e.g. Seidlhofer 2011), which examines how English is used within and across linguistic communities, has been instrumental in showcasing current uses of English as a contact language in a range of fluid contexts. This presentation aims to first explore the impact on society of the spread of English as a global language. It will then outline the implications of this spread on societal attitudes towards variation in the English language. Finally, it will summarize recent proposals (e.g. Galloway & Rose 2015) to make the English classroom more relevant to learners who are likely to use English in global contexts.

Heath Rose is a specialist in language teacher training. He is the current course leader for the MSc/Postgraduate Diploma in Teaching English Language in University Settings, and also lectures on the MSc in Applied Linguistics and Second Language Acquisition.

Before coming to Oxford, Heath oversaw the M.Phil. in English Language Teaching at Trinity College Dublin, and was Director of the Centre of English Language Learning and Teaching. He has taught for nearly two decades, starting in Australian schools, before moving into higher education at The University of Sydney and then to Japan at Rikkyo University, and Tohoku University.

He holds a Masters and PhD in Education from The University of Sydney, and a Postgraduate Diploma in Education (a secondary school teaching qualification) from The University of Queensland.

Developing foreign language knowledge and skills from watching captioned TV and DVDs: Theoretical and practical issues arising from the EURECAP Project

23 February 2016 13:15 - 14:15
Seminar Room K/L

Speaker: Dr. Robert Vanderplank, Department of Education

An Applied Linguistics Lunchtime Seminar convened by: Dr Jess Briggs

There is substantial evidence of the benefits in terms of enhanced comprehension and vocabulary acquisition for foreign language learners watching TV programmes and films with same language subtitles provided for the deaf and hard-of-hearing (e.g., Montero-Perez et al. 2013; Vanderplank, 2010, 2015, 2016). Most of this evidence comes from research with English language learners as TV programmes have carried these subtitles since the 1970s in the UK and North America (closed captions in the US). What has still hardly been addressed even after 30+ years of research is the question of whether learner-viewers may develop their language knowledge and skills over time through watching captioned programmes and DVDs and what the strategies and mechanisms are for this to happen.

The EURECAP Project at the Language Centre at Oxford has been exploring the benefits of watching films on DVD with same language subtitles in French, German, Italian and Spanish. Modern languages students and non-specialist language learners could borrow and watch a selection of DVDs in each language in their own time and kept diaries of their experiences and changes in behaviour over a five-to-six week period. In this presentation, I shall outline the aims of the project, the key findings and how these have helped to develop a complex model of language learning through watching films and programmes with these same language subtitles.

The importance of morphological word stems for children's spelling/The role of representations in multiplicative reasoning

24 February 2016 17:00 - 18:30
Seminar Room K/L

Speakers: Lauren Burton, Department of Education and Lucy Ellis, National Foundation for Educational Research

Convener: Professor Terezinha Nunes for the Children Learning and Families, Effective Learning and Literacy (FELL) Research Groups

10/65 and all that: resistance to comprehensive reform in Buckinghamshire schools 1962-1975

25 February 2016 12:30 - 13:45
Seminar Room B

Speaker: Dorothy Makin, DPhil student, Faculty of History

Convener: Dr Velda Elliott, Qualitative Methods Special Interest Group

To this day, Buckinghamshire is one of only two local education authorities in England operating a fully selective secondary system.  Its grammar schools rank as some of the top state schools in the country and its secondary modern schools (now upper schools and in many cases academies outside LEA control) present a varied and sometimes excellent picture in terms of performance. However, systematic underfunding, repeated instances of school failure, and sometimes school closure have detracted from the esteem and confidence which the non-selective sector has been able to command. Despite such variation, a 2004 review of the county’s practices noted that the authority’s ‘commitment to selection [was] unequivocal.’ Using a wide range of official archives and press sources, this paper explores how it was that the Buckinghamshire LEA came to cling to selection so tenaciously and investigates how key figures and debates in the 1960s and early 1970s acted to lock the county into a particular trajectory of educational development for the remainder of the century.

Political discourse and education reforms concerning "equality of educational opportunity" in Japan

25 February 2016 17:00 - 18:30
Seminar Room A

Speaker: Professor Akito Okada, Institute of Global Studies, Graduate School, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.

Convener: Dr David Johnson, Centre for Comparative and International Education in association with the Oxford Education Society.


This presentation aims to throw light on the evolution and historical transformation of the concept of equality of opportunity as applied to educational policies in Japan from the end of World War II to the present day. It analyses the Central Council for Education’s (CCE: Chūō kyōiku shingikai) reform proposals in recent years, and places them in the context of developing the concept of equality of educational opportunity in the years since 1945, when the post-war education system was established in Japan.

More specifically it addresses the following questions: What kinds of equality of educational opportunity have the central administrative bodies (Ministry of Education or the CCE), the political parties (mainly Liberal Democratic Party) and teachers aimed to achieve since the war? How have they applied equality of opportunity to educational policies? What kinds of criteria are used by them to measure equality of educational opportunity?

This presentation is also to expand on the existing literature on educational policies in contemporary Japan by examining how the current educational reform efforts have affected equality of educational opportunity among children from different family backgrounds.

Dr Akito Okada is an alumnus of the Department of Education having completed his DPhil in Comparative and International Education in 1998 under the supervision of Professor Roger Goodman and Professor David Phillips. Akito is currently Professor at the Institute of Global Studies, Graduate School, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies and a visiting fellow at University College London from October 2015 to March 2016.

He is central coordinator for the international students’ education program (ISEP TUFS), and responsible for the delivery of lectures from the doctoral to undergraduate and research students.

His research interests include comparative and international education, intercultural communication, education reform and policy, international student education and education for international understanding. He is the author of “Education Policy and Equal Opportunity in Japan”.

A nuanced view of motivational effects on academic achievement: A case for parental aspiration, competition, and mastery goals

29 February 2016 12:30 - 13:45
Seminar Room D

Speaker: Dr Kou Murayama, University of Reading

Conveners: Professor Steve Strand, Dr Lars-Erik Malmberg and Dr James Hall, Quantitative Methods Hub

Many people in education typically think that motivation has uniform, positive influences on students' academic achievement --- that is, the more motivated students are, the better grades they can attain. However, not all motivations are adaptive. Research in educational psychology revealed that there are different types of motivations, and they have both positive and negative implications for students' learning. In this presentation, I will illustrate the points with our programmes of research, using a variety of techniques such as longitudinal data analsis (e.g., latent growth curve model, dual change score model), behavioural experiments, and meta-analysis. The topics include parental aspiration, competition, and mastery (vs. performance) goals.

Closing the Gap: issues, challenges and impact of the implementation of a national experiment in educational research (Public Seminar)

29 February 2016 16:30 - 18:00
Seminar Room A

Speakers: Dr Ann Childs, Dr Nigel Fancourt, Dr Roger Firth, Professor Ian Menter and Dr Ian Thompson, Department of Education

Convener: Professor Ian Menter, Teacher Education and Professional Learning Research Group

During 2012, the National College for Teaching and Leadership, working in collaboration with a number of partners, designed a major research and development initiative entitled Closing the Gap - Test and Learn.  The contract to run the project was awarded to CfBT who worked in partnership with CUREE and the Universities of Durham and Oxford to deliver the scheme from 2012-2015.

They invited lead teaching schools in teaching school alliances to apply to take part in a national trial of seven particular intervention programmes, each of which had been identified as having significant potential in 'closing the attainment gap'.  That is, they were programmes designed to improve the attainment of children who were low achievers.  A total of more than 700 Schools joined the programme in its first year and bid to work with one or more of the interventions.  Half of the schools went into the trial group and commenced the programme during 2014.  The other half of the schools went into a control group and waited until the next academic year to undertake the programme.  In all schools a sample of pupils was identified for participation in the scheme and were given pre- and post-tests before and at the end of the Year 1 trial period.  The scheme was thus designated as a form of Randomised Control Trial

In this seminar the Oxford team offer an analysis of the project as a whole, drawing not only on data gathered during its implementation but also on additional data derived from interviews with a number of participants.

In particular we look at:

  • the 'policy origins' of the entire scheme, the ways in which it emerged out of: the development of teaching schools, the 'closing the gap' objective of the Coalition government; the desire to increase research capacity within the teaching workforce; as well as other elements;
  • the extent to which the overall methodology can indeed be described as a Randomised Control Trial. Although this was a very large scale initiative, the actual interventions were each carried out with relatively small numbers of pupils in a very diverse range of contexts;
  • the extent to which evidence emerged from the project to suggest that teachers in schools were becoming increasingly research-literate and that the 'school-led system' was developing research capacity through engagement in a scheme such as this;
  • the research ethics issues raised by such a large scale randomised controlled trial, and in particular the decisions around which interventions to include and continue, which leads on to an argument for a principle of educational equipoise.

EAP teachers‘ cognitions and practices in teaching lexis in two Turkish private universities: an exploratory qualitative study

01 March 2016 13:15 - 14:15
Seminar Room K/L

Speaker: Dr. Sukru Nural, Murat Hüdavendigar University

An Applied Linguistics Lunchtime Seminar convened by: Dr Jess Briggs

A large body of empirical research has suggested that lexis is a major concern for learners and teachers in the language classroom context. A wide recognition of the crucial role of lexis in language learning and teaching culminated in sets of principles proposed by some vocabulary researchers (Barcroft, 2002; Laufer, 2005a; Meara, 2005; Nation, 2005a; Sökmen, 1997; Zimmerman, 2008). However, it is important to acknowledge that teachers know more about the constraints and demands of their own contexts than decontextualised expert principles can allow for. In the present study, the underlying reasons why teachers teach lexis in the way they do are examined. Particularly, the main thrust of the study is to explore the relationship between two EAP teachers‘ cognitions and practices of lexis teaching in preparatory schools of two private universities in Turkey. The data generation instruments used in the study include classroom observations, field notes, stimulated recall, and semi-structured follow-up interviews. The findings of the study suggest that although the teachers have students with similar profiles and characteristics they seem to have different tendencies towards provision of lexical knowledge. Apart from the factors underpinning the difference in their tendencies, the relationship between teachers‘ cognitions and practices of lexis teaching were also identified with specific reference to the determinants that have a role to play in the correspondence between their beliefs and actual classroom behaviour. With its implications for teacher education and teacher cognition research, this case study also complements classroom-based research into form-focused instruction in general and lexis instruction in particular.

Motivation and reading in children and adolescents

02 March 2016 17:00 - 18:30
Seminar Room K/L

Speakers: Professor Jane Hurry, Department of Psychology and Human Development, Institute of Education, UCL

Convener: Professor Terezinha Nunes for the Children Learning and Families, Effective Learning and Literacy (FELL) Research Groups

Ways of visualising non-numerical data

03 March 2016 12:30 - 13:45
Seminar Room B

Speaker: Dr Alis Oancea and Zainab Kabba, DPhil student, Department of Education

Convener: Dr Velda Elliott, Qualitative Methods Special Interest Group

Using multilevel SEM techniques to identify the impact of school policy and teachers actions on student learning: a longitudinal study

07 March 2016 12:30 - 13:45
Seminar Room D

Speaker: Professor Leonidas Kyriakides, University of Cyprus

Conveners: Professor Steve Strand, Dr Lars-Erik Malmberg and Dr James Hall, Quantitative Methods Hub

Promoting quality in education: a dynamic approach to school improvement (Public Seminar)

07 March 2016 16:30 - 18:00
Seminar Room A

Speaker: Professor Leonidas Kyriakides, University of Cyprus

Convener: Dr Lars-Erik Malmberg, Quantitative Methods Hub

Exploring changes in overall L2 proficiency as an outcome of ERASMUS study abroad and common factors associated with differential linguistic development

08 March 2016 13:15 - 14:15
Seminar Room K/L

Speaker: Gianna Hessel, Department of Education

An Applied Linguistics Lunchtime Seminar convened by: Dr Jess Briggs

Let’s Talk! An intervention supporting children’s vocabulary and narrative development through sustained planned pretend play and group shared storybook reading in the early years

09 March 2016 17:00 - 18:30
Seminar Room K/L

Speakers: Dr Gillian Lake, Oxford Brookes University

Convener: Professor Terezinha Nunes for the Children Learning and Families, Effective Learning and Literacy (FELL) Research Groups

Secular institutions, Islam, and education policy: France and the U.S. in comparative perspective

10 March 2016 12:30 - 13:45
Seminar Room B

Speaker: Dr Paola Mattei, Department of Social Policy and Intervention

Convener: Dr Velda Elliott, Qualitative Methods Special Interest Group

A conceptual approach to assessing achievement and progress in mathematics

17 March 2016 16:30 - 18:00
Seminar Room B

Speaker: Dr Ian Jones, Mathematics Education Centre, Loughborough University

Convener: Dr Gabriel Stylianides, Subject Pedagogy Research Group

Mathematics exams tend to assess general achievement through testing procedural knowledge across a sample of mathematical domains. In this presentation I will describe an alternative approach that instead tests conceptual understanding across domains. Open-ended test questions, which focus on specific concepts (e.g. fractions), are administered to students and the responses scored using a comparative judgement technique. The scores are then aggregated to produce an overall score of general mathematical achievement for each student. I will present two recent studies conducted with Key Stage 3 students. The findings suggest that the approach, if carefully designed, produces valid and reliable outcomes when used to assess general achievement and progress in school mathematics.

The Young Language Learners (YLL) Symposium 2016

06 July 2016 -